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The articles served on this page have been all reviewed properly according to the Humaniora standards and policies and are accepted to be published in the upcoming issues. However, the articles have no particular publication date yet, until they are officially published on the website in a complete issue or volume.

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Vol. 33 (2), 2021

Women's Roles In Adding Value To Wooden Crafts And Contributing To Family Income In Babung, Gunungkidul
Slamet Subiyantoro

Gender discrimination continues to exist in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, with women often placed in the role of mother and housekeeper. In areas such as Bobung Village, where they form an integral part of the local industry, women transcend these roles to contribute to the economy. This research aimed to examine women's roles in adding to the artistic value of wooden crafts, their impact on increasing family income, and local community members’ views towards these female roles. The research was socio-anthropological, with data obtained through in-depth interviews, participant observations, and content analyses of documents and records. Data were analyzed using an interactive model including data collection, reduction of presentation, and verification. The findings showed that (1) women play a significant  role in improving the artistic value of wooden crafts through their batik painting and writing techniques. They make these crafts appear more exotic, and help to preserve traditional batik motifs. (2) With the addition of these women’s motifs to wooden crafts, they add to their family income while still performing their domestic duties, such as caring for their children and cooking. Their wages are based on a daily system, collective system, or combination of both. (3) Batik-making on wooden crafts has feminine characteristics; it is soft and light, as opposed to woodworking’s masculine characteristics of hard, physical work. Women’s batik-making is consequently complementary to the work performed by men. According to the local people, there is no gender bias related to the job differentiation between men and women.

Women in Mount Tengger Folklores: Their Presence, Position and Environmental Knowledge of Disaster Mitigation
Sony Sukmawan, Lestari Setyowati

Tenggerese people in East Java are one of Indonesia’s ethnic communities endowed with a unique folklore. This  ethnographic research aimed to find out 1) how women are presented in Mount Tengger folklore; 2) the position of women in Tengger folkore; and 3) Tenggerese women’s environmental knowledge in relation to nature and disaster mitigation. Data analysis used multi perspective dimensions by employing theories of ecofeminism, ecocriticism, and folkloristic views. Human instruments, observations, interviews, and documentation were used in this study. The findings revealed that 1) women are presented both in Tengger folktales and oral poetry (spells), and are characterized as being mentally strong, respected, and having the proclivity to protect the environment. 2) In Tenggerese folklore, women enjoy equal position with men. The equality between men and women has become a social value and practice within Tenggerese traditions. Women work side-by-side with men in their domestic lives and beyond. 3) Tenggerese women have extensive environmental knowledge, in both the physical and psychological sense. They have in-depth and detailed knowledge of the vitality of nature for human living.

Kartini’s Views On Opium Problems In Java At The End Of The 19th Century
Abdul Wahid

In the 1890s, the discourse on the negative effects of opium consumption among Native people turned into a political movement, which demanded that the Dutch colonial government reform its policies on opium. In the same period, Raden Ajeng Kartini, a priyayi (noble) woman from Jepara, developed her intellectual capabilities and thinking. Her letters, it was later discovered, contained critical ideas concerning the disadvantaged position of Javanese women. In addition to this, as an issue attracting greater public scrutiny, the opium problem also drew Kartini’s attention, as evinced in at least two letters to Stella Zeehadnelaar and Mrs. Abendanon-Madri. Curiously, Kartini’s views on the opium problem have been given little scholarly attention in the rich literature on her life, with most scholarly work focusing on her “feminist” thoughts and ideas. For that reason, this article offers an analysis on this very specific aspect of Kartini’s thoughts, delving further into its historical context and what it means in terms of her existing historical persona.

Being Away from Home in Australia: The Indonesian Diaspora in Canberra
Wasisto Raharjo Jati

The study of diasporas has been given relatively little attention by Indonesian scholars.  A likely reason is the high cost of funding diaspora research in the host countries, motivating scholars to instead focus on other, less resource-intensive topics. Although the significance of this research on the Indonesian diaspora may not be immediately evident, its importance lies in how Indonesians maintain their nationalism when living overseas. Two problems particularly felt by them are homesickness and anxiety.  Using an ethnographic approach, this research therefore sought to highlight how the Indonesian diaspora based in Canberra, Australia, make social bonds with each other. These bonds serve to make Canberra a second home for Indonesians, especially students and their families, permanent residents, and even naturalised citizens who have Indonesian backgrounds.  A main finding was that there are various senses of Indonesianess between groups in the Canberra-based diaspora. While students are much more likely to maintain a feeling of nationalism due to scholarship policies, other groups in the diaspora, such as permanent residents and naturalised citizens, appear to hold onto their Indonesianess less tightly. Although they still engage with Indonesia, they view the country more critically, including on sensitive issues that are labelled as taboo in Indonesia. Despite the existence of these two different conceptions of Indonesianess, Canberra is their home away from home in Australia.  These results consequently aid in our understanding of the significance of family ties to shaping most Asian diaspora communities living abroad.

Dimakan Sayang: Turning the Common into the Exclusive, Cassava Bread (Embal) in The Kei Islands, Southeast Maluku, Indonesia
P.M. Laksono

This article traces changes in everyday narratives considering cassava bread (embal) in the Kei Islands. Various methods of data collection (participant observation, focused group discussion, and survey) were used, and applied purposively to produce critical narratives on the transformation of local food patterns. These data were collected over a short fieldwork period in 2016 from the villages of Wain, Rumaat, and Langgur in the Kei Islands, Southeast Maluku. As this traditional staple food is being replaced by rice, Kei people are creatively adjusting both their attitudes and appetites towards embal. Both conceptual (noetic)shifts and sensory (taste) shifts are apparent. The typical taste or flavor of embal is increasingly celebrated and regarded as a special blessing. Yet, at the same time, many young Kei are now preferring to eat imported rice more than embal. They are losing their appetite for consuming embal as a daily common food, even as they increasingly adore and celebrate it as a luxurious meal. This suggests that the villagers have become bigger consumers of imported food (rice and noodles) than their city-based counterparts. As such, embal consumers (the local food’s contributors to sovereignty) in the market will continuously be under pressure, diminishing in numbers, in accordance with the rise of its exclusive image. Such is the irony for cassava as food sovereignty in the Kei Islands.

A Cultural Heritage Management Perspective: Kotabaru, Yogyakarta, Between A Protected Cultural Site And A Commercial Area
Fahmi Prihantoro

Yogyakarta’s Kotabaru area is one of rich cultural heritage, with a protected cultural status that means it must be preserved. Presently, Kotabaru faces the threat of destruction as a consequence of its developing business and services sectors. The changing of building functions, together with new developments, is ever-increasing with each year. This research sought to study what is occurring between the preservation of the Kotabaru area and the development of its economic sector, as well as how efforts can be made to solve the problems of the threat of destruction to protected cultural sites within the area, using the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) approach. The findings revealed that there are competing interests in the Kotabaru area, between preservation and economic development, which contribute to the emergence of a threat to the preservation of protected cultural sites. To solve this problem, the HUL approach should be used and, in particular, the approach contained in the UNESCO recommendation on managing cultural heritage. With these findings, it is hoped that they will be able to serve as a reference concept for the solving of the issues that are occurring in the Kotabaru area, from a perspective of cultural heritage management.

Re-Interpretation of Mañjuśrī in Central and East Java
Lesley S Pullen

This article will begin with a brief look at the origins of Mañjuśrī from south Nepal, his popularity in China and the many depictions of him in eastern India and Java. More importantly, it will re-interpret a selected group of the Boddhisattva Mañjuśri in the human form with one head and two arms. The statues produced in both bronze, silver and stone, all with similar attributes identifying him as Mañjuśrī. The theoretical framework follows the various representation of Mañjuśrī statues from eastern India to a Kumārabhūta form only in Central Java and a single form of Arapacana in East Java.  Within this framework, it will evaluate the stylistic features, attributes and the sartorial style of statues from both regions of Java, with details not previously discussed by past scholars, particularly looking at the textile patterns found on several of the statues. When the Mañjuśrī statues appeared in Central Java, various forms of the youthful Kumārabhūta or royal prince emerged, where he appeared to be particularly popular. Despite past knowledge of these statues, this paper allows for a new research direction and highlights the change in Mañjuśrī styles from Central to East Java. Similarly, various forms of Mañjuśrī Arapacana from eastern India transpire in East Java with this one unique statue of Arapacana from Caṇḍi Jago.