Indonesian Uncertainty on Tourism Components in the New Normal Period and the Ability to Travel Soon

Imam Nur Hakim(1*), Chamma Fitri Putri Pradjwalita Koesfardani(2), I Dewa Gede Richard Alan Amory(3)

(1) Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy/Tourism and Creative Economy Agency
(2) Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy/Tourism and Creative Economy Agency
(3) Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy/Tourism and Creative Economy Agency
(*) Corresponding Author


When the COVID-19 pandemic hit Indonesia, one of the most-impacted industries was its tourism sector. After the government developed various transmission prevention policies, a press release from the Indonesian president in May 2020 established the new normal terms. These new terms sought to allow Indonesians to return to travel as soon as possible with several protocols in place. However, the post-pandemic situation has made some Indonesians feel an intolerance towards the uncertainty of changes in the tourism component. Through a descriptive quantitative approach using the theory of Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), this study aimed to determine what Indonesians feel about uncertainty, how they feel about it, and how to reduce these feelings in Camilleri’s five components of tourism. The results showed that Indonesians feel uncertainty in every component of tourist destinations, with accommodation being the most significant factor, followed by financial, protocol readiness, and health factors, particularly the threat of contracting the virus and the number of cases. Therefore, appropriate handling to eliminate the number of affected cases and the uncertainty of crowds in the destination can significantly contribute to creating the ideal situation awaited by most Indonesians before they decide to return to travel.


COVID-19; descriptive quantitative; intolerant of uncertainty; new normal; tourism components

Full Text:



Altig, D., Baker, S., Barrero, J. M., Bloom, N., Bunn, P., Chen, S., Davis, S. J., Leather, J., Meyer, B., Mihaylov, E., Mizen, P., Parker, N., Renault, T., Smietanka, P., & Thwaites, G. (2020). Economic uncertainty before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Public Economics, 191, 104274.

Behar, E., DiMarco, I. D., Hekler, E. B., Mohlman, J., & Staples, A. M. (2009). Current theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Conceptual review and treatment implications. In Journal of Anxiety Disorders.

Berenbaum, H., Bredemeier, K., & Thompson, R. J. (2008). Intolerance of uncertainty: Exploring its dimensionality and associations with need for cognitive closure, psychopathology, and personality. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.

Bhat, B. A., Khan, S., Manzoor, S., Niyaz, A., Tak, H. J., Anees, S.-U.-M., Gull, S., & Ahmad, I. (2020). A Study on Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Psychological Health, Economy and Social Life of People in Kashmir. In International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research (

Bratić, M., Radivojević, A., Stojiljković, N., Simović, O., Juvan, E., Lesjak, M., & Podovšovnik, E. (2021). Should I Stay or Should I Go? Tourists’ COVID-19 Risk Perception and Vacation Behavior Shift. Sustainability, 13(6), 3573.

Camilleri, M. A. (2018). Travel marketing, tourism economics and the airline product. In The Tourism Industry.

del Valle, M., Andrés, M. L., Urquijo, S., Yerro, M., López Morales, H., & Canet Juric, L. (2020). Intolerance of uncertainty over COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on anxiety and depressive symptoms. Revista Interamericana de Psicologia/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 54, e1335.

Lubis, L. N. (2016). Depresi tinjauan psikologis. Kencana.

Gao, J., Zheng, P., Jia, Y., Chen, H., Mao, Y., Chen, S., Wang, Y., Fu, H., & Dai, J. (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS ONE.

Gentes, E. L., & Ruscio, A. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of the relation of intolerance of uncertainty to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In Clinical Psychology Review.

Glowacz, F., & Schmits, E. (2020). Psychological distress during the COVID-19 lockdown: The young adults most at risk. Psychiatry Research, 293, 113486.

Hebert, E. A., & Dugas, M. J. (2019). Behavioral Experiments for Intolerance of Uncertainty: Challenging the Unknown in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 26(2), 421–436.

Herdiana, D. (2020). Rekomendasi Kebijakan Pemulihan Pariwisata Pasca Wabah Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) di Kota Bandung. JURNAL MASTER PARIWISATA, Volume 07, Nomor 01, Juli 2020, 1–30.

Jian, Y., Yu, I. Y., Yang, M. X., & Zeng, K. J. (2020). The Impacts of Fear and Uncertainty of COVID-19 on Environmental Concerns, Brand Trust, and Behavioral Intentions toward Green Hotels. In Sustainability (Vol. 12, Issue 20).

Kaligis, F., Indraswari, M. T., & Ismail, R. I. (2020). Stress during COVID-19 pandemic: Mental health condition in Indonesia. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 29(4), 436–441.

Kaplan, H. I., Sadock, B. J., & Grebb, J. A. (2010). Sinopsis psikiatri: Ilmu pengetahuan perilaku psikiatri klinis. Dr. I. Made Wiguna S. Jakarta: Bina Rupa Aksara.

Karataş, Z., & Tagay, Ö. (2021). The relationships between resilience of the adults affected by the covid pandemic in Turkey and Covid-19 fear, meaning in life, life satisfaction, intolerance of uncertainty and hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 172, 110592.

Karl, M. (2018). Risk and Uncertainty in Travel Decision-Making: Tourist and Destination Perspective. Journal of Travel Research, 57, 129–146.

Kusnadi, I. H., Suparman, A., & Mariene, I. (2020). Budaya Organisasi Dalam Pelayanan Wisatawan Menghadapi Adaptasi Kebiasaan Baru (AKB) Pada Pt. Sari Ater Hotel & Resort. The World of Business Administration Journal, Volume 2 Issue 1 Juni 2020.

Lee, S. A. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393–401.

Lee, T. H., & Tseng, C. H. (2015). How personality and risk-taking attitude affect the behavior of adventure recreationists. Tourism Geographies, 17(3), 307–331.

Masbiran, V. U. K. (2020). Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 Terhadap Pariwisata Sumatera Barat. Jurnal Pembangunan Nagari; Vol 5 No 2 (2020)DO - 10.30559/Jpn.V5i2.212.

Middleton., V. T. C., Fyall, A., & Clarke, jackie R. (2002). Marketing in Travel and Tourism. (3rd ed., Vol. 3). Butterworth-Heinemann; 3rd edition.

Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia. (2020). Decree Of The Health Minister, HK.01.07/MENKES/382/2020, About Protocol For Community Health In Place And Public Facilities In The Order Of Prevention And Control Of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19).

Nevid, J. ., Spencer .A, R., & Beverly, G. (2014). Abnormal Psychology In Changing World. In Pearson.

Ng, K. H., Agius, M., & Zaman, R. (2013). The global economic crisis: Effects on mental health and what can be done. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 106(6), 211–214.

Ni, R., Sri, M., Dewi, P., Tinggi, S., & Bogor, P. (2020). New Normal bagi Pariwisata Bali di Masa Pandemi COVID 19. Jurnal Ilmiah Pariwisata Agama Dan Budaya.

Odriozola González, P., Planchuelo Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., & de Luis-García, R. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university. Psychiatry Research.

Overholser, J. C., & Nasser, E. H. (2000). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 30(2), 149–161.

Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797–805.

Rajkumar, R. P. (2020). COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 102066.

Rettie, H., & Daniels, J. (2020). Coping and tolerance of uncertainty: Predictors and mediators of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Psychologist.

Santos, A., Madrid, C., Haegeman, K., & Rainoldi, A. (2020). Behavioural changes in tourism in times of COVID-19 Employment scenarios and policy options.

Simanjuntak Rina, D. F. (2020). Gegar Budaya, Adaptasi, dan Konsep Diri Sumber Daya Manusia Pariwisata dalam Menyongsong Era New Normal. Society, Vol 8 No 2 (2020): Society, 403–418.

Smith, B. M., Twohy, A. J., & Smith, G. S. (2020). Psychological inflexibility and intolerance of uncertainty moderate the relationship between social isolation and mental health outcomes during COVID-19. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 18, 162–174.

Soehardi Diah Ayu; Sihite, Janfry, S. P. (2020). Pengaruh Pandemik Covid-19 Terhadap Pendapatan Tempat Wisata dan Kinerja Karyawan Pariwisata di Jakarta. Jurnal Kajian Ilmiah, Vol. 1 No. 1 (2020): Edisi Khusus Tema: Covid-19, 1–14.

Sugihamretha, I. D. G. (2020). Respon Kebijakan: Mitigasi Dampak Wabah Covid-19 Pada Sektor Pariwisata. The Indonesian Journal of Development Planning, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2020): Edisi Khusus Covid-19-Juni 2020, 191–206.

Sundari, S. (2004). Kearah Memahami Kesehatan Mental.

Suwena, I. K., & Widyatmaja, I. G. N. (2017). Pengetahuan Dasar Ilmu Pariwisata. In Pustka Larasan.

Tony, S. U., & Jacky, Y. S. (2020). The Impacts of Financial and Non-Financial Crises on Tourism: Evidence From Macao and Hong Kong. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33(May 2019), 100628.

Torales, J., O’Higgins, M., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. In International Journal of Social Psychiatry.

Wallakula, Y. B. (2020). Analisis Eksistensi Pariwisata Indonesia di Tengah Situasi Pandemi Corona Virus Disease ( Covid19 ). Ilmu Sosial Keagamaan.

Wheaton, M. G., Messner, G. R., & Marks, J. B. (2021). Intolerance of uncertainty as a factor linking obsessive-compulsive symptoms, health anxiety and concerns about the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in the United States. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 28, 100605.

Widodo, J. (2020, May). Pemerintah Ingin Masyarakat Produktif dan Aman dari Covid-19.

Williams, A. M., & Baláž, V. (2015). Tourism Risk and Uncertainty. Journal of Travel Research, 54(3), 271–287.

Xiong, J., Lipsitz, O., Nasri, F., Lui, L. M. W., Gill, H., & Phan, L. (2020). Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ’ s public news and information. Elsevier Connect, January.

Yoety, O. A. (2016). Perencanaan dan pengembangan pariwisata. Pradnya Paramita.

Zhang, K., Hou, Y., & Li, G. (2020). Threat of infectious disease during an outbreak: Influence on tourists’ emotional responses to disadvantaged price inequality. Annals of Tourism Research, 84, 102993.

Zhuo, L., Wu, Q., Le, H., Li, H., Zheng, L., Ma, G., & Tao, H. (2021). COVID-19-Related Intolerance of Uncertainty and Mental Health among Back-To-School Students in Wuhan: The Moderation Effect of Social Support. In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Vol. 18, Issue 3).


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2679 | views : 3359


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Humaniora

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free web stats Web Stats

ISSN 2302-9269 (online); ISSN 0852-0801 (print)
Copyright © 2022 Humaniora, Office of Journal & Publishing, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada