The Role of Primary Health Care in the Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases

Indah S Widyahening(1*)

(1) Department of Community Medicine; Faculty of Medicine; Universitas Indonesia; Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) currently cause more deaths than all other causes combined.  Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes are the four major NCDs that are responsible for 82% of NCD deaths. Approximately 42% of all NCD deaths globally occurred before the age of 70 years; 48% of NCD deaths in the low- and middle-income countries and 28% in high-income countries were in individuals aged under 70 years.(1) 

Because of its chronic nature and the complications that arisen, NCDs bring devastating social, economic and public health impact.  The management of its various long-term complications accompanied by the typical existence of multimorbidity will give rise to an increased complexity of care in the future. Aging, improved medical therapies, demographic transition, life-style changes, globalization and urbanization are factors that are contributing to the increased prevalence, severity and complexity of NCDs.........

Full Text:



1. World Health Organization. Global status report of noncommunicable diseases 2014. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2014.

2. World Health Organization. Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013-2020. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2013.

3. World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.

4. Starfield B. Is primary care essential?. Lancet. 1994;344(8930):1129-33.

5. Beaglehole R, Epping-Jordan J, Patel V, Chopra M, Ebrahim S, Kidd M, et al. Improving the prevention and management of chronic disease in low-income and middle-income countries: A priority for primary health care. Lancet. 2008;372:940–9.

6. Shi L. The impact of primary care: A focused review. Scientifica. 2012;2012(432892):1-22.

7. Oandasan IF, Archibald D, Authier L, Lawrence K, McEwen LA, Mackay MP, et al. Future practice of comprehensive care; Practice intentions of exiting family medicine residents in Canada. Canadian Family Physician. 2018;64(7):520-8.

8. Walker SP, Wachs TD, Gardner JM, Lozoff B, Wasserman GA, Pollitt E, et al. Child development: Risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries. Lancet. 2007;369:145-57.

9. World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.

10. National Association of Chronis Disease Directors. Comprehensive and integrated chronic disease prevention: Action planning handbook for states and communities. Atlanta, Georgia: National Association of Chronis Disease Directors. 2005.

11. Grover A, Joshi A. An overview of chronic disease models: A systematic literature review. Global Journal of Health Science. 2015;7(2):210-27.

12. American Diabetes Association. Strategies for improving care. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(Suppl. 1):S5–S7.

13. Bodenheimer T, Wagner E, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model, part 2. JAMA. 2002;288:1909–14.

14. Barceló A, Epping-Jordan J, Orduñez P, Luciani S, Agurto I, Tasca R. Innovative care for chronic conditions: Organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic noncommunicable diseases in the americas. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization; 2013.

15. World Health Organization. Innovative care for chronic conditions: building blocks for action: global report. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1828 | views : 1739


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Indah S Widyahening

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats