Optimizing The Functional Performance of Road Network using Vulnerability Assessment to Cope with Unforeseen Road Incidents

  • Mukhammad Rizka Fahmi Amrozi Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
  • Raihan Pasha Isheka Department of Civil Engineering, Vocational College, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
Keywords: Urban Road, Vulnerability Index, Road Performance, PTV Visum, Road Network Resilience


An Urban Road network is often used for multipurpose trips, due to their transportation functions, such as attractiveness and orientation, as well as social, ecological, and economic features. In Indonesia, road incidents have reportedly increased during the last decade because of a higher frequency of natural hazards, accidents, and on-street mass demonstrations. These incidents are found to degrade or terminate road access, forcing users to utilize alternative routes and decreasing the service performance in adjacent directions. Due to the unexpected occurrences at any location and time, there is a need to investigate the impact of random incidents on road performances. Several accessibility indexes have also been used to evaluate the vulnerability of road networks. However, this is less practical in Indonesia, with the road authority using functional performances as the indicator. This indicates the need for an index to be developed based on road performance parameters. Therefore, this study aims to develop a road performance-based vulnerability index known as the RCI (Road Criticality Index). Combined with a traffic simulation tool, this system is used as an alternative index to assess vulnerabilities, by identifying the road(s) providing worse consequences due to unforeseen incidents. This simulation was conducted by using the PTV Visum, assuming a road section is closed due to the worst incident scenarios. The result showed that the RCI offered a more comprehensive assessment than the existing indicator (volume capacity ratio). The RCI included travel speed and mobility components for evaluating both local and global road performances. With the knowledge of the most vulnerable locations and their consequences, road authorities can prioritize maintenance and development strategies based on the criticality index. Also, preventive measures should be conducted to mitigate risk under a constrained budget. This methodology can be applied to sustainably enhance the resilience of urban road networks.


Amrozi, M.R.F. and Evdorides, H.T. 2019. Economic Optimisation of Road Network Accessibility. Bituminous Mixtures and Pavements VII. CRC Press. pp. 499-506.

Auerbach, M., Hammoum, F., Huber, F., Hunyadi, D., Krieger, B., Marchese, A., Maruntu, C., Murphy, H. and Reeves, S. 2016. Transport Strategies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation. France: The World Road Association (PIARC).

Balijepalli, C. and Oppong, O. 2014. Measuring vulnerability of road network considering the extent of serviceability of critical road links in urban areas. Journal of Transport Geography 39 145-155.

Berdica, K., 2002. An Introduction to Road Vulnerability: What Has Been Done, is Done and Should be Done. Transport Policy ,9(2), pp. 117-127.

BPS-statistics, 2021. Yogyakarta Municipality in Figures 2021. Yogyakarta: BPS-Statistic of Yogyakarta Municipality.

BSN, 2004. RSNI T-14-2004: Urban Road Geometry. Jakarta: National Standardization Agency (BSN).

El-Rashidy, R.A. and Grant-Muller, S.M., 2014. An Assessment Method for Highway Network Vulnerability. Journal of Transport Geography, 34, pp. 34-43.

Fitrada, A.G., Munawar, A., and Dewanti, 2019. Investigating the Impact of Airport Relocation on the Transport Network in Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Journal of The Civil Engineering Forum, 5 (2), pp. 93-104.

IHCM 1997. Indonesia Highway Capacity Manual (MKJI). Jakarta: Ministry of Public Work Republic Indonesia.

Jenelius, E. and Mattsson, L.-G., 2015. Road Network Vulnerability Analysis: Conceptualization, Implementation and Application. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 49, pp. 136-147.

Karlaftis, M. and Kepaptsoglou, K., 2012. Performance Measurement in The Road Sector: A Cross-Country Review of Experience, International Transport Forum Discussion Paper.

Litman, T. 2016. Accessibility for Transportation Planning: Measuring People’s Ability to Reach Desired Goods and Activities. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Mahpudin, M., Kelihu, A., and Sarmiasih, M. 2020. The Rise of Student Social Movement: Case Study of #GejayanCalling Movement in Yogyakarta. International Journal of Demos, 2(1), pp.21-42.

Ministry of Transport, 2006. Kepmenhub KM 14/2006 concerning Road Traffic Management and Engineering. Jakarta : Ministry of Transport.

Ministry of Transport, 2015. Permenhub PM 96/2015 concerning Guidelines for the Implementation of Traffic Management and Engineering Activities. Jakarta: Ministry of Transport.

Nagurney, A. and Qiang, Q. 2008. A Network Efficiency Measure with Application to Critical Infrastructure Networks. Journal of Global Optimization, 40(1-3), pp. 261-275.

Nardo, M., Saisana, M., Saltelli, A., Tarantola, S., Hoffmann, A., and Giovannini, E., 2008. Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators: Methodology and User Guide. Ispra: OECD publishing.

OECD 2001. Performance Indicators for the Road Sector. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).

Oliveira, E.L.D., Portugal, L.D.S., and Junior, W.P., 2016. Indicators of Reliability and Vulnerability: Similarities and Differences in Ranking Links of a Complex Road System. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 88, pp. 195-208.

PTV, A. 2021. PTV Visum 2021 Manual. Karlsruhe: PTV Group.

Rupi, F., Bernardi, S., Rossi, G., and Danesi, A., 2015. The Evaluation of Road Network Vulnerability in Mountainous Areas: A Case Study. Networks and Spatial Economics, 15(2), pp. 397-411.

Scott, D.M., Novak, D.C., Aultman-Hall, L., and Guo, F., 2006. Network Robustness Index: A new method for identifying critical links and evaluating the performance of transportation networks. Journal of Transport Geography 14(3) 215-227.

Stanton-Geddes, Z. and Vun, Y.J., 2019. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of Indonesian Cities, Washington DC.: World Bank.

Sudibyo, T., Mahardi, P., and Prasetyo, T., 2017. Comparison of Road Service Level Assessment based on PM 96/2015 and KM 14/2006. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Teknik Sipil, 11, pp. 183-188.

Sugishita, K. and Asakura, Y., 2021. Vulnerability Studies in the Fields of Transportation and Complex Networks: A Citation Network Analysis. Public Transport, 13(1), pp. 1-34.

Sullivan, J.L., Novak, D.C., Aultman-Hall, L., and Scott, D.M., 2010. Identifying Critical Road Segments and Measuring System-Wide Robustness in transportation Networks with isolating links: A Link-Based Capacity-Reduction Approach. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 44(5), pp. 323-336.

Susilawati and Taylor, M., 2008. An Accessibility Approach in Assessing Regional Road Network Vulnerability. Gold Coast: 31st Australasian Transport Research Forum.

Tamin, O.Z., 2000. Transportation Planning and Modeling: Bandung: ITB Publisher.

Taylor, M., 2017. Vulnerability Analysis for Transportation Networks, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Taylor, M.A.P., Sekhar, S.V.C., and D'Este, G.M., 2006. Application of Accessibility Based Methods for Vulnerability Analysis of Strategic Road Networks. Networks and Spatial Economics, 6(3-4), pp. 267-291.

Taylor, M.A.P. and Susilawati 2012. Remoteness and Accessibility in the Vulnerability Analysis of Regional Road Networks. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46(5), pp. 761-771.

How to Cite
Amrozi, M. R. F., & Raihan Pasha Isheka. (2021). Optimizing The Functional Performance of Road Network using Vulnerability Assessment to Cope with Unforeseen Road Incidents. Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum, 8(1), 67-80. https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.3598