The Study of Seismic Hazard in Near-Fault Areas Using Probabilistic and Deterministic Approach
Earthquake is one of the most common natural disasters in Indonesia and usually destroys both high and low-rise buildings as well as triggers liquefaction and Tsunami. This means it is important to provide a robust building design with the ability to resist earthquake load and other induced phenomena. One of the methods commonly used to determine the relevant response spectrum of the bedrock is seismic hazard analysis which can be either Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) or Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA). The application of PSHA allows the representation of the response spectrum of an earthquake using the return period, thereby providing the engineers with the flexibility of selecting the appropriate natural period. Meanwhile, DSHA is based on geological observations and empirical data that can be easily understood. This research discussed the greater influence of seismic hazard analysis on the bedrock response spectrum of near-fault areas including Bandung situated at a distance of 12.9 km from Lembang Fault, Palu at 3 km from Palu Fault, and Yogyakarta at 8.5 km from Opak Fault. Moreover, EZFRISK Program was used to generate a response spectrum at bedrock and the results showed that PSHA is consistently more conservative than DSHA. It was also noted that there are significant differences at shorter periods for Palu site but these differences were observed at the natural period between 1s and 2s for Bandung and Yogyakarta sites.
ASCE 7-16 (2017)Minimum design loads and associated criteria for buildings and other structures. Reston, Virginia, American Society of Civil Engineers.
SNI 1726 (2019)Tata cara perencanaan ketahanan gempa untuk struktur bangunan gedung dan nongedung, BSN.
Abrahamson, N. A., Gregor, N. & Addo, K. (2012) BC Hydro Ground Motion Prediction Equations for Subduction Earthquakes. Earthquake Spectra 32(1):23-44.
Adelayanti, N. (2020) Reflections and Lessons from the 2006 Jogja Earthquake. Universitas Gadjah Mada (accessed 23 August 2022 2020).
Atkinson, G. M. & Boore, D. M. (2003) Empirical Ground-Motion Relations for Subduction-Zone Earthquakes and Their Application to Cascadia and Other Regions. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 93(4):1703-1729.
Baker, J. W. (2008) An Introduction to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA).
Boore, D. M., Stewart, J. P., Seyhan, E. & Atkinson, G. M. (2014) NGA-West2 Equations for Predicting PGA, PGV, and 5% Damped PSA for Shallow Crustal Earthquakes. Earthquake Spectra 30:1057-1085.
Campbell, K. W. & Bozorgnia, Y. (2014) NGA-West2 Campbell-Bozorgnia ground motion model for the horizontal components of PGA, PGV, and 5%-damped elastic pseudo-acceleration response spectra for periods ranging from 0. 01 to 10 sec. Earthquake Spectra:1088-1115.
CGI (2006) Preliminary damage and loss assessment, Yogyakarta and central Java natural disaster: A joint report of BAPPENAS, the provincial and local governments of D.I. Yogyakarta, the provincial and local governments of central Java, and international partners. In The 15th Meeting of the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI) Jakarta, June 14, 2006.), pp. 140.
Chiou, B. S. J. & Youngs, R. R. (2014) Update of the Chiou and Youngs NGA Model for the Average Horizontal Component of Peak Ground Motion and Response Spectra. Earthquake Spectra 30(3):1117-1153.
Cilia, M. G., Mooney, W. D. & Nugroho, C. (2021) Field Insights and Analysis of the 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu, Indonesia Earthquake, Tsunami and Landslides. Pure and Applied Geophysics 178:4891-4920.
Cornell, C. A. (1968) Engineering Seismic Risk Analysis. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 58.
Daryono, M. R., Natawidjaja, D. H., Sapiie, B. & Cummins, P. (2019) Earthquake Geology of the Lembang Fault, West Java, Indonesia. Tectonophysics 751:180-191.
Eftekhari, S. N., Sayyadpour, H. & Kowsari, M. (2021) A near-fault probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Yasouj, located in the Kazerun fault system, southwest Iran. Natural Hazards 105:1945–1961.
Fugroconsultants (2021) EZ-FRISK User's Manual.) Fugro Consultants, Inc., Walnut Creek, California.
Gardner, J. K. & Knopoff, L. (1974) Is the sequence of earthquakes in southern California, with aftershock removed, poissonian? Bulletin of Seismological Society of America 64(5):1363-1367.
Knopoff, L. & Gardner, J. K. (1972) Higher Seismic Activity During Local Night on the Raw Worldwide Earthquake Catalogue. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 28(3):311-313.
Kramer, S. L. (1996) Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Krinitzsky, E. L. (2003) How to combine deterministic and probabilistic methods for assessing earthquake hazards. Engineering Geology 70(1):157-163.
Moratto, L., Orlecka-Sikora, B., Costa, G., Suhadolc, P., Papaioannou, C. & Papazachos, C. B. (2007) A deterministic seismic hazard analysis for shallow earthquakes in Greece. Tectonophysics 442(1):66-82.
Pailoplee, S., Sugiyama, Y. & Charusiri, P. (2009) Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses in Thailand and Adjacent Area Using Active Fault Data. Earth Planets Space 61:1313-1325.
Pusgen (2018) KAJIAN GEMPA PALU PROVINSI SULAWESI TENGAH 28 SEPTEMBER 2018 (M7.4).) PUSGEN, Indonesia.
Putra, M. F. N., Rustadi, Haerudin, N. & Sulaeman, C. (2017) ANALISIS SITE EFFECT BERDASARKAN DATA MIKROTREMOR DAN NILAI PEAK GROUND ACCELERATION PADA SESAR OPAK, KABUPATEN BANTUL DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA. Jurnal Geofisika Eksplorasi 3(3).
Rasmid (2014) Aktivitas Sesar Lembang di Utara Cekungan Bandung. Jurnal Meteorologi dan Geofisika 15 (2):129-136.
Sari, A. M. & Fakhrurrozi, A. (2020) Seismic Hazard Microzonation Based on Probability Seismic Hazard Analysis in Bandung Basin. Riset Geologi dan Pertambangan 30(2):215-228.
USGS (2022) Earthquake Lists, Maps, and Statistics. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/ (accessed April 2022.
Vaziri, J., Soleymani, A., Hasani, H., Mosavi Nezhad, S. M. & Momivand, K. (2022) A Comprehensive Review on Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) Methods.
Wang, Z. (2011) Seismic Hazard Assessment: Issues and Alternatives. Pure and Applied Geophysics 168(1):11-25.
Youngs, R. R., Chiou, S. J., Silva, W. J. & Humphrey, J. R. (1997) Strong Ground Motion Attenuation Relationships for Subduction Zone Earthquakes. Seismological Research Letters 68(1):58-73.
Zhao, J. X., Zhang, J., Asano, A., Ohno, Y., Oouchi, T., Takahashi, T., Ogawa, H., Irikura, K., Thio, H. K., Somerville, P. & Fukushima, Y. (2006) Attenuation relations of strong ground motion in Japan using site classification based on predominant period. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 96(3):898-913.
Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright is granted to authors for the purpose of providing protection for articles written to describe experiments and their results. JCEF will protect and defend the work and reputation of the author and are also willing to address any allegations of violation, plagiarism, fraud, etc. against articles written and published by JCEF. JCEF is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). The author holds the copyright and assigns the journal rights to the first publication (online and print) of the work simultaneously.