Cooperative vs Competitive: Filosofi Keseimbangan “Yin-Yang” dalam Hubungan Interdependency

Nidya Dudija
(Submitted 7 April 2016)
(Published 1 December 2015)

Abstract


Teori ini 1 dikembangkan oleh Morton Deutsch (1949a, 1949b, 1973, 1985) dan
juga diuraikan oleh David W. Johnson (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). Cooperative–
Competitive merupakan salah satu teori dalam psikologi sosial yang dikemukakan
oleh Morton Deutch. Ilmuan evolusi sosial mengatakan bahwa altruisme manusia dan kerjasama adalah hasil dari sejarah spesies yang unik “konflik antar kelompok dan perang” (Alexander, 1987; Buss, 1999; Campbell, 1975; Tooby & Cosmides, 1988), dapat diartikan bahwa konflik antar kelompok telah membentuk psikologi dan perilaku manusia khususnya (Vugt, Gremer, & Janssen 2007). Penelitian psikologi sosial konsisten dengan ide ini. Dalam hal ini manusia spontan membuat perbandingan “kita vs mereka” kategorisasi dan cepat mengembangkan aspek emosional dalam kelompok bahkan ketika keanggotaan didasarkan pada kriteria yang sederhana, seperti flip koin (Brewer, 1979; Ostrom & Sedikides, 1992; Tajfel & Turner, 1979). Manusia juga mudah melakukan tindakan diskriminasi terhadap anggota dari luar kelompok (Fiske, 2002) dan terlibat dalam tindakan altruistik untuk membela kelompok mereka (De Cremer & Van Vugt, 1999; Sherif , 1966).

Keywords


cooperative; competitive; filosofi keseimbangan; yin dan yang

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DOI: 10.22146/bpsi.10563

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