Memori dalam Multitasking

Ni Made Swasti Wulanyani
(Submitted 7 April 2016)
(Published 1 December 2015)

Abstract


Multitasking 1 atau tugas berganda menyiratkan adanya lebih dari satu tugas
di dalamnya. Salvucci dan Taatgen (2011) menambahkan bahwa kondisi tugas
berganda adalah adanya beberapa tugas yang independen dan tidak berhubungan
yang dilakukan dalam waktu yang bersamaan. Hal inilah yang membedakannya
dengan tugas kompleks. Selanjutnya Appelbaum dan Marchionni (2008)
memandang tugas berganda menjadi dua jenis yaitu tugas ganda (dual task) atau dua tugas yang dilakukan bersamaan dan switching task atau lebih dari satu tugas
yang dilakukan dengan beralih diantara tugas-tugas tersebut. Sementara Salvucci
dan Taatgen (2011) menyebutnya sebagai tugas berganda bersamaan (concurrent
multitasking) yaitu setiap tugas berlangsung bersamaan/simultan atau hanya
dengan interupsi singkat. Bentuk lainnya adalah tugas berganda sekuensial (sequen-tial multitasking) yaitu individu memberikan perhatian yang lebih lama pada satu tugas sebelum berpindah pada tugas lain, meskipun tetap terjadi tumpang tindih perhatian.

Keywords


memory; multitasking; cognitive

References


Appelbaum, S. H., & Marchionni, A. (2008). The Multi-tasking paradox: perceptions, problems and strategies. Management Decision, 46(9), 1313-1325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/002517408109 11966.

Baddeley, A. D. (1990). Human memory: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Bayliss, D. M., Jarrold, C., Gunn, D. M., & Baddeley, A. D. (2003). The complexities of complex span: Explaining individual differences in working memory in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 71-92.

Bunge, S. A., Ochsner, K. N., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2001). Prefrontal regions involved in keeping information in and out of mind. Brain, 124, 2074-2086.

Burgess, P. W. (2000). Strategy application disorder: the role of the frontal lobe in human multitasking research. Psychological Research, 63, 279–288.

Burgess, P. W., Quayle, A., & Frith, C. D. (2001). Brain regions involved in prospective memory as determined by positron emission tomography. Neuropsychologia, 39, 545–555.

Carey, C. L., Woods, S. P., Rippeth, J. D., Heaton, R. K., Grant, I. & HNRC Group. (2006). Prospective memory in HIV-1 infection. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28, 536- 548

Conlin, J. A., Gathercole, S. E., & Adams, J. W. (2005). Children’s working memory: Investigating performance limitations in complex span tasks. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 90, 303- 317.

Einstein, G. O., Smith, R. E., McDaniel, M. A., & Shaw, P. (1997). Aging and prospective memory: The influence of increased task demands at encoding and retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 12, 479-488.

Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2004). The relations among inhibition and interference control functions: A latent variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 101-135.

Harnishfeger, K. K. (1995). The development of cognitive inhibition: Theories, definitions, and research evidence. In F.N. Dempster & C.J. Brainerd (Eds), Interference and inhibition in cognition (pp. 175-204). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Kerns, K. A. (2000). The CyberCruiser: An investigation of development of prospective memory in children. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 62–70.

Kvavilashvili, L. Messer, D., & Ebdon, P. (2001). Prospective memory in children: The effects of age and task interruption. Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 418-430.

Martin, M., Kliegel, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (2003). The involvement of executive functions in prospective memory performance of adults. International Journal of Psychology, 38(4), 195-206.

Nigg, J. T. (2001). Is ADHD a disinhibitory disorder? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 571- 598.

Ramnani, N., & Owen, A.M. (2004). Anterior prefrontal cortex: Insights into function from anatomy and neuroimaging. NatureReviews Neuroscience, 5, 184–194.

Salvucci, D. D., & Taatgen, N. A. (2011). The Multitasking Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

Smith, R. E. (2003). The cost of remembering to remember in event-based prospective memory: Investigating the capacity demands of delayed intention performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 347– 361.

Wilson, S. P., Kipp, K., & Daniels, J. (2003). Task demands and age-related differences in retrieval and responsse inhibition. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 599-613.

Wulanyani, N. M. S. (2014). Faktor kecerdasan, kepribadian dan cara kerja yang memengaruhi performansi tugas berganda. (Disertasi, tidak dipublikasikan). Yogyakarta. Fakultas Psikologi UGM


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/bpsi.10568

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Buletin Psikologi