“Cool” dan “Hot” Brain Executive Functioning dan Perfomansi Akademik Siswa

Nani Restati Siregar
(Submitted 15 September 2018)
(Published 3 December 2018)


The study of literature was to aim of exploring the role of cool and hot executive functions (EF) on academic performance. It was consist of (a) what are they; (b) developmental hot and cool EF; and (c) The dynamic of hot and cool EF toward academic performance. This study of literature explores a distinction (and relationship, too) made within this general domain that has emerged only recently in the theoretical and empirical literature: cool and hot executive function. Cool executive functions were related to cognitive tasks (working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibition control), and hot executive functions were related to emotion tasks (motivation, effective decision making, behavior). Both of them played an important role in academic performance. The implication of the literature study should be useful for teaching strategy in the classroom. Teachers need to create a good atmosphere, in particular, to stimulate positive emotions for learners


cool executive function; hot executive function; neuropsychology

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/buletinpsikologi.38817


Anderson, P. J. (2008). Toward a develop­mental. Dalam V. Anderson., R. Jacobs, & P. J. Anderson (Eds), Executive function and frontal lobes. A life span perspective (pp.3-22). London: Taylor & Francis.

Arain, M., Haque, M., Johal, L., Mathur, P., Nel, W., Rais, A., Sandhu, R., … Sharma, S. (2013). Maturation of the adolescent brain. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 9, 449-61. doi: 10.2147/ NDT.S39776

Ardila, A. (2018). Is intelligence equivalen to executive function?. Psicothema, 30(2), 159-164. doi: 10.7334/Psicothema2017.329

Bangirana, P., Menk, J., John, C. C., Boivin, M.J., & Hodges, J. S. (2013) The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neuro­logical involvement. PLoS ONE,8(2), e55653. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0055653

Barbas, H. (2016). Executive function: The prefrontal cortex: Structure and anatomy. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.04731-0

Barbas, H. (2009). Prefrontal cortex: Structure and anatomy. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 909-908. doi: 10.1016/B978-008045046-9-00427-7

Bechara, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (2000). Emotion, decision making and orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10(3), 295-307. doi: 10.1093/cercor/ 10.3.295

Blair, C. (2016a). Executive function and early childhood education. Behavioral Science, 10, 102-107. doi: 10.1016/ j.cobeha.2016.05.009

Blair, C. (2016b). Developmental science and executive function. Psychological Science, 25(1), 3-7. doi: 10.1177/0963721415622634

Bonelli, R. M., & Cummings, J. L. (2007). Frontal-subcortical circuitry and beha­vior. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 9(2), 141-51.

Brock, L. L., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Nathanson, L., & Grimm, K. J. (2009). The contributions of 'hot' and 'cool' executive function to

children's academic achievement, learning-related behaviors, and engagement in kinder­garten. Early Childhood Research Quarter­ly, 24(3), 337-349. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq. 2009.06.001

Chan, R. C. K., Shum, D., Toulopoulou, T., & Chen, E. Y. H. (2008). Assesment of executive functions: Review of instru­ments and identification of crtitical issues. Archives of clinical neuropsy­chology, 23(2), 201-216.

Comte,M., Schön, D., Coull, J. T., Reynaud, E., Khalfa, S., …… Fakra, E. (2016). Dissociating bottom-up and top-down mechanisms in the cortico-limbic system during emotion processing. Cerebral Cortex, 26(1), 144–155. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu185

Diamond, A. (2014). Want to optimize executive functions and academic outcomes? Simple, just nourish the human spirit. Minn Symp Child Psychol, 37, 205-232. https://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4210770

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol, 64, 135-168. doi: 10.1146/ annurex-psych-11301-143750

Diamond, A. (2012). Activities and programs that improve children’s executive functions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(5), 335–341. doi: 10.1177/ 0963721412453722

Farrell, M. J. (2012). Age-related changes in the structure and function of brain regions involved in pain processing, Pain Medicine, 13(2) S37–S43, doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01287.x

Finn, A. S., Kraft, M. A., West, M. R., Leonard, J. A., Bish, C. E., Martin, E. E.,…Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2014). Cognitive skills, students achievement test, and schools. Psychological Science, 25(3), 736-744. doi: 10.1177/0956797613516008

Garon, N. (2016). A review of hot executive function in preschoolers. Journal of Self-Regulation and Regulation, 2. doi:10.11588/josar.2016.2.34354

Gutnik, L. A., Haleim, A. F., Yoskowitz, N. A., & Patel, V. L. (2006). The role of emotion in decision-making: A cogni­tive neuro-economic approach towards understanding sexual risk behavior. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 39(6), 720-736. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2006.03.002

Happaney, K., Zelazo, P. D., & Stuss, D. T. (2004). Development of orbitofrontal function: Current themes and future directions. Brain and Cognition, 55, 1-10.

Hobson, C. W., Scott, S., & Rubia, K. (2011). Investigation of cool and hot executive function in ODD/CD independently of ADHD. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(100: 1034-1043).doi: 16.iiii/j.1469-7610.2011.12454.x

Huffman, L. C., Mehlinger, S. L., & Kerivan, A. S. (2000). Risk factors for academic and behavioral problems at the beginning of school. http://www.secure. ce4allience.com/articles/9580/ riskfactoracademic

Hur, J., Iordan, A. D., Dolcos, F., & Berenbaum, H. (2017) Emotional influences on perception and working memory, Cognition and Emotion,31(6), 1294-1302, doi: 10.1080/02699931.2016.1213703

Hyson, M., Copple, C., & Jones, J. (2006). Early childhood development andeducation. In K. A. Renninger & I. Sigel (Eds.), Handbook of childpsychology: Volume 4. Child psychology in practice (pp. 3–47). New York:Wiley.

Jacobson, L. A., Williford, A. P., & Pianton, R. C. (2011). The role of executive function in children’s component adjustment to middle school. Child Neuropsychology, 17(3), 255-280. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2010.535654

Jung, N., Wranke, C., Hamburger, K., & Knauff, M. (2014). How emotions affect logical reasoning: Evidence from experiment with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobic and people with exam anxiety. Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Science, 5, 570. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00570

Kalanthroff, E., Cohen, N., & Henik, A. (2013). Stop feeling: Inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(78), doi:10.3389/ fnhum.2013.00078.

Lubin, A., Houdé, O., & Neys, W. D. (2015). Evidence for children’s error sensitivity during arithmetic word problem solving. Learning and Intervention, 40:1-8

Luca, C. R.D., & Leventer, R. J. (2008). Developmental trajectories of executive functions across the lifespan. Dalam V. Anderson., R. Jacobs., P. J. Anderson (Eds), Executive function in frontal lobe. A lifespan perspective (pp.23-56). New York: Taylor.

Lv, B., Zhou H., Guo X., Liu C, Liu Z, & Luo, L. (2016) The relationship between academic achievement and the emo­tional well-being of elementary school children in China: The moderating role of parent-school communication. Front. Psychol. 7, 948. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg. 2016.00948

Magdalena, S. M. (2012). Social and emotional competence – predictors of school adjustment. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 76, 29-33, doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.068

Mann, T. D., Hund, A. M., Hesson-McInnis, M. S., & Roman, Z. J. (2016). Pathways to school readiness : Executive functioning predicts academic and social-emotional aspects of school readiness. Mind, Brain, & Education, 11(1), 21-31.

Mann, D. P., Roberta, S., James, B., Andrea, L. J., Kuhn, A. J., Devereaux, B. N., …. Middaugh, E. L. (2015). Executive functioning: Relationship with high school student role performance. The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, 3(4), 2. doi: 10.15453/2-168-6408.1153

Marc, D. L., Rebecca, M. T., & Michael, J. M. L. (2007). Event–related potential measures of emotion resolution in early childhood. Neuroreport, 18, 61-65, doi: 10.1097/WNR. 0b013e328010a216

Meltzer, L. (2014). Teaching executive functioning processes: Promoting metacognition, strategy use, and effort. Dalam S. Goldstein & J. A. Naglieri (Eds). Handbook of Executive Functioning (445-474). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8106-5

Meuwinssen, A. S., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014, November). Hot and cool executive function: Foundation for learning and healthy development. Zero to Three, 18-23.

Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive function and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” task: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49-100. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734

Morales, L. P. (2015). Relationship between cognitive processes and academic performance in high school students. Psychologia: Avances de la Disciplina, 9(2), 85-100.

Moreno-Lōpez, L., Stamatakis, E. A., fernāndez-Serrano, M. J., Gōmez-Rio, M., Rodriguez-Fernāndez, A.,…..& Verdejo-Garcia, A. (2012). Neural correlates of hot and cold executive functions in polysubstance addiction: Association between neuropsycho­logical performance and testing brain metabolism as measured by positron emission tomography. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 203(2-3), 214-221. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.01.006

Murman, D. L. (2015). The impact of age on cognition. Seminars in Hearing, 36(3), 111-21. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1555115

Navarro, J. J., García-Rubio, J., & Olivares, P. R. (2015). The relative age effect and its influence on academic performance. PloS one, 10(10), e0141895. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141895

Osaka, M., Yaoi, K., Minamoto, T., & Osaka, N. (2013). When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance?. Scientific reports, 3, 1375. doi: 10.1038/srep01375

Park, A. T., Leonard, J. A., Saxler, P. K., Cyr, A. B., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Mackey, A. P. (2018). Amygdala – medial prefrontal cortex connectivity relates to stress and mental health in early childhood. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13(4), 430-439. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsy017

Peterson, E., & Welsh, M. C. (2014). The development of hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence: Are we getting warmer?. Dalam S. Goldstein & J. A. Naglieri (Eds). Handbook of Executive Functioning, (pp. 45-65). New York: Springer.

Phelps, E. A. (2006). Emotion and cognition: Insight from studies of the human amygdala. Annu Rev Psychol, 57, 27-53. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070234

Poon, K. (2018). Hot and cool executive functions in adolescence: Development and contributions to important developmental outcomes. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 2311. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02311

Pratama, A. T., & Corebima, A. D. (2017). Contributions emotional intelligence on cognitive learning result of biology of senior high school students in Medan, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 11(15), 8077-8087.

Ritchey, M., Dolcos, F., & Cabeza, R. (2008). Role of amygdala connectivity in the persistence of emotional memories over time: An event-related fMRI investi­gation. Cerebral Cortex, 18(11), 2494-2504. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhm262

Rotgans, J. I., & Schmidt, H. G. (2011). Cognitive engagement in the problem-

based learning classroom. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 465-79.

Stevens, F. L., Hurley, R.A., & Katherine, K. H. (2011). Anterior cingulate cortex: Unique role in cognition and emotion. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 23(2), 120-125.

Tsermentseli, S., & Poland, S. (2016). Cool versus hot executive function: A new approach to executive function. Encephalos, 53, 11-14. http: www.encephalos.gr/pdf/53-1-02e

Valiente; Swanson, J., & Eisenberg, N. (2012). Linking students’ emotions and academic achievement: When and why emotions matter. Child Dev Perspect, 6(2), 129-135. doi: 10.1111/J.1750.8606. 2011.00192-x

Visu-Petra, L., Cheie, L., Benga, O., & Miclea, M. (2011). Cognitive control goes to school: The impact of executive functions on academic performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 11, 240-244. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011. 01.069

Wang, Y., Chen, J., & Yue, Z. (2017). Positive Emotion Facilitates Cognitive Flexi­bility: An fMRI Study. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1832. doi:10.3389/ fpsyg.2017.01832

Will, E., Fidler, D. J., Daunhaver, L., & Gerlac-McDonald, B. (2017). Executive function and academic achievement in primary-grade students with Down syndrome, 61(2):181-195, doi:10.111/ jir.12313

Willoughby, M., Kupersmidt, J., Voegler-Lee, M., & Bryant, D. (2011). Contri­butions of hot and cool self-regulation to preschool

disruptive behavior and academic achievement. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36(2), 162–180. doi: 10.1080/87565641. 2010.549980

Yazdi, S. A. A., Farahi, S. M.M., Farahi, S. M. M. M., & Hosseini, J. (2018). Emotional intelligence and its role in cognitive flexibility of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Anales de Psicologia,34(2), 299-304

Zelazo, P. D., & Carlson, S. M. (2012). Hot and cool executive function in child­hood and adolescence: Development and plasticity. Child Development Perspective, 6(4), 354-360

Zelazo, P. D., & Lee, W. S. C. (2010). Brain development. An overview. Dalam W. F. Overton (Ed). Cognition, biology, and methods across the lifespan. Handbook of Life-span development (pp.89-114). Hoboken, NJ: Willey.

Zelazo, P. D., Carlson, S. M., & Kesek, A. (2008). The developmental of executive function in childhood. Dalam C. A. Nelson., & M. Luciana (Eds). Handbook of developmental cognitive neuro­science (pp.553-574). London: The MIT Press.

Zelazo, P. D., & Müller, U. (2002). Executive functions in typical and atypical development. In U. Goswami (Ed), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp.445-469). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Zelazo P. D, & Müller, U. (2011). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In U. Goswami (Ed). The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell

Zimmerman, D. L., Ownsworth, T., O’Donovan, A., Roberts, J., & Gullo, M. J. (2016). Independence of hot and cold executive function deficits in high-

functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 24. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00024


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Buletin Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.