Harga Diri dan Adiksi Internet: Tinjauan Meta-Analisis

Wahyu Rahardjo
(Submitted 31 October 2018)
(Published 14 June 2019)


The aim of this meta-analysis study is to figure out the true correlation between self-esteem and internet addiction. This meta-analysis uses 159 studies from 40 scientific articles from the year of 2005-2018 and involved in 120.825 participants. Correction for the two artifacts studied in this meta-analysis first is sampling error, and the second one is measurement error. The results support the hypothesis and show some similar findings whereas the true correlations from the groups confirm previous researches that self-esteem has a negative correlation to internet addiction. The strongest correlation found in adolescence group followed by men and women, all participant, also students and college students groups. However, these findings show that the internet accommodates individuals with negative self-esteem to build online social relationships and fulfilling their communication and pleasure needs and makes them easier committed to deviant behavior such as internet addiction.


internet addiction; negative correlation; self-esteem

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/buletinpsikologi.40306


*Agaj, C. D. (2015). Predictive effects of self-esteem, shyness, and loneliness on internet addiction: Case of Albania. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(12), 129-134.

Ainin, S., Jaafar, N. I., Ashraf, M., & Parveen, F. (2017). Exploring the role of demographics and psychological variables in internet addiction. Social Science Computer Review, 35(6), 77-780. doi: 10.1177/0894439316667396

Anderson, E. L., Steen, E., & Stavropoulos, V. (2016). Internet use and problematic internet use: A systematic review of longitudinal research trends in adolescence and emergent adulthood. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 1-26. doi: 10.1080/ 02673843.2016.1227716

*Andreou, E., & Svioli, H. (2013). The association between internet user characteristics and dimensions of internet addiction among Greek adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11, 139-148. doi: 10.1007/s11469-012-9404-3

*Ayas, T., & Horzum, M. B. (2013). Relations between depression, loneliness, self-esteem, and internet addiction. Education, 133(3), 283-290.

*Aydin, B., & Sari, S. V. (2011). Internet addiction among adolescents: The role of self-esteem. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3500-3505. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.325

*Bahrainian, S. A., Alizadeh, K. H., Raeisoon, M. R., Gorji, O. H., & Khazaee, A. (2014). Relationship of internet addiction with self-esteem and depression in university students. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 55(3), 86-89.

Berdibayeva, S., Garber, A., Ivanov, D., Massalimova, A., Kukubayeva, A., & Berdibayev, S. (2016). Psychological prevention of older adolescents’ interpersonal relationships, who are prone to internet addiction. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 984-989. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.081

Bevelander, K. E., Anschutz, D. J., Creemers, D. H. M., Kleinjan, M., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2013). The role of explicit and implicit self-esteem in peer modeling of palatable food intake: A study of social media interaction among youngsters. PLoS ONE, 8(8), 1-12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072481

*Blachnio, A., Przepiorka, A., Senol-Durak, E., Durak, M., & Sherstyuk, L. (2016). The role of self-esteem in internet addiction: A comparison between Turkish, Polish, and Ukrainian samples. The European Journal of Psychiatry, 30(2), 149-155.

*Bozoglan, B., Demirer, V., & Sahin, I. (2013). Loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction as predictors of internet addiction: A cross-sectional study among Turkish university students. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54, 313-319. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12049

Burke, T. J., Woszidlo, A., & Segrin, C. (2013). The intergenerational transmission of social skills and psychosocial problems among parents and their young adult children. Journal of Family Communication, 13(2), 77–91. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2013.768247

Burrow, A. L., & Rainone, N. (2017). How many likes did I get? Purpose moderates links between positive social media feedback and self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 232-236. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2016.09. 005

Caplan, S. E. (2003). Preference for online social interaction: A theory of proble­matic internet use and psychosocial well-being. Communica­tion Research, 30(6), 625-648. doi: 10.1177/0093650203257842

Caplan, S. E. (2005). A social skill account of problematic internet use. Journal of Communication, 55(4), 721–736. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2005.tb03019.x

Caplan, S. E. (2007). Relations among loneliness, social anxiety, and proble­matic internet use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(2), 234–242. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9963

Casey, B., Tottenham, N., Liston, C., & Durston, S. (2005). Imaging the developing brain: What we have learned about cognitive development? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(3), 104-110. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.01.011

Cash, H., Rae, C. D., Steel, A. H., & Winkler, A. (2012). Internet addiction: A brief summary of research and practice. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 8(4), 292-298. doi: 10.2174/ 157340012803520513

*Cheung, J. C. S., Chan, K. H. W., & Lui, Y. W., Tsui, M. S., & Chan, C. (2018). Psychological well-being and adolescents’ internet addiction: A school-based cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 35(5), 477-487. doi: 10.1007/s10560-018-0543-7

*Chun, J. S. (2016). Effects of psychological problems, emotional dysregulation, and self-esteem on problematic inter­net use among Korean adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 68, 187-192. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2016. 07.005

Cole, S. H., & Hooley, J. M. (2013). Clinical and personality correlates of MMO gaming: Anxiety and absorption in problematic internet use. Social Science Computer Review, 31(4), 424-436. doi: 10.1177/0894439312475280

Connolly, J., Nguyen, H. N. T., Pepler, D., Craig, W., & Jiang, D. (2013). Developmental trajectories of romantic stages and associations with problem behaviors during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 1013-1024. doi: 10.1016/ j.adolescence.2013.08.006

Cook, S. H., Heinze, J. E., Miller, A. E., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Transition in friendship attachment during adolescence are associated with developmental trajectories of depression through adulthood. Journal of Adolescence Health, 58, 260-266. doi: 10.1016/ j.jadohealth.2015.10.252

Czincz, J., & Hechanova, R. (2009). Internet addiction: Debating the diagnosis. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 27(4), 257-272.

*Dong, B., Zhao, F., Wu, X. S., Wang, W. J., Li, Y. F., Zhang, Z. H., & Sun, Y. H. (2018). Social anxiety may modify the relationship between internet addiction and its determining factors in Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s11469-018-9912-x

Douglas, A. C., Mills, J. E., Niang, M., Stepchenkova, S., Byun, S., Ruffini, C., Lee, S. K., Loutfi, J., Lee, J. K., Atallah, M., & Blanton, M. (2008). Internet addiction: Meta-synthesis of qualita­tive research for the decade 1996-2006. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 3027-3044. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.05.009

*Fioravanti, G., Dettore, D., & Casale, S. (2012). Adolescent internet addiction: Testing the association between self-esteem, the perception of internet attributes, and preference for online social interaction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(6), 318-323. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0358

Frankel, F., & Myatt, R. (1996). Self-esteem, social competence and psychopatho­logy in boys without friends. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(3), 401-407. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(95)00177-8

Fumero, A., Marrero, R. J., Voltes, D., & Penate, W. (2018). Personal and social factors involved in internet addiction among adolescents: A meta-analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 86, 387-400. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.05.005

Gorse, P., & Lejoyeux, M. (2011). Online pathological gambling: A new clinical expression of internet addiction. Dalam H. O. Price (Ed.), Internet addiction (pp. 47-57). New York: Novinka.

Griffiths, M. (2000). Does internet and computer “addiction” exist? Some case study evidence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3(2), 211-218. doi: 10.1089/109493100316067

Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (second edition). London: SAGE.

*Jiang, Z., & Shi, M. (2016). Prevalence and co-occurrence of compulsive buying, problematic internet and mobile phone use in college students in Yantai, China: Relevance of self-traits. BMC Public Health, 16, 1211-1219. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3884-1

Jin, B., & Park, N. (2012). Mobile voice communication and loneliness: Cell phone use and the social skills deficit hypothesis. New Media & Society, 15(7), 1094–1111. doi: 10.1177/1461444 812466715

*Kim, H. K., & Davis, K. E. (2009). Toward a comprehensive theory of problematic internet use: Evaluating the role of self-esteem, anxiety, flow, and the self-rated important of internet activities. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 490-500. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.11.001

Kim, H., Parker, J. G., & Marciano, A. R. W. (2017). Interplay of self-esteem, emotion regulation, and parenting in young adolescents’ friendship jealousy. Journal of Applied Develop­mental Psychology, 52, 170-180. doi: 10.1016/ j.appdev. 2017.06.007

*Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Yen, C. F., Lin, H. C., & Yang, M. J. (2007). Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in young adolescents: A prospective study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(4), 545-551. doi: 10.1089/ cpb.2007.9992

*Koronczai, B., Kokonyei, G., Urban, R., Kun, B., Papaya, O., Nagygyorgy, K., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2013). The mediating effect of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety between satisfaction with body appearance and problematic internet use. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 39(4), 259-165. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2013.803111

Kuss, D. J., van Rooij, A. J., Shorter, G. W., Griffiths, M. D., & van de Mheen, D. (2013). Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1987-1996. doi: 10.1016/ j.chb.2013.04.002

Kuss, D. J. (2015). Internet addiction: A real addiction? Dalam D. J. Kuss & M. D. Griffith (Eds.), Internet addiction in psychotherapy (54-104). London: Palgrave.

Li, J., Li, D., Jia, J., Li, X., Wang, Y., & Li, Y. (2018). Family functioning and internet addiction among adolescents males and females: A moderated mediation analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 91, 289-297. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.06.032

Liang, L., Zhou, D., Yuan, C., Shao, A., & Bian, Y. (2016). Gender differences in the relationship between internet addiction and depression: A cross-lagged study in Chinese adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 463-470. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.04.043

*Lin, M. P., Wu, J. Y. W., You, J., Chang, K. M., Hu, W. H., & Xu, S. (2018). Association between online and offline social support and internet addiction in a representative sample of senior high school students in Taiwan: The mediating role of self-esteem. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.007

Liu, T., & Potenza, M. (2007). Problematic internet use: Clinical implications. CNS Spectrum, 12(6), 453-466. doi: 10.1017/S1092852900015339

*Mazzoni, E., Cannata, D., & Baiocco, L. (2017). Focused, not lost: The mediating role of temporal dissociation and focused immersion on problematic internet use. Behaviour & Information Technology, 36(1), 11-20. doi: 10.1080/0144929X. 2016.1159249

*Mei, S., Yau, Y. H. C., Chai, J., Guo, J., & Potenza, M. N. (2016). Problematic internet use, well-being, and self-control: Data from a high-school survey in China. Addictive Behaviors, 61, 74-79. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh. 2016.05.009

Munno, D., Cappellin, F., Saroldi, M., Bechon, E., Guglielmucci, F., Passera, R., & Zullo, G. (2017). Internet addiction disorder: Personality charac­teristics and risk pathological overuse in adolescents. Psychiatry Research, 248, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres. 2016.11.008

*Naseri, L., Mohamadi, J., Sayehmiri, K., & Azizpoor, Y. (2015). Perceived social support, self-esteem, and internet addiction among students of Az-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 9(3), 1-4. doi: 10.17795/ijpbs-421

*Nie, J., Zhang, W., & Liu, Y. (2017). Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 72, 114-120. doi: 10.1016/ j.comppsych.2016.10.006

*Niemz, K., Griffiths, M., & Banyard, P. (2005). Prevalence of pathological internet use among university students and correlations with self-esteem, the General Health Ques­tionnaire (GHQ), and disinhibition. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(6), 562-570. doi: 10. 1089/cpb.2005.8.562

Nowland, R., Necka, E. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2017). Loneliness and social internet use: Pathways to reconnection in a digital world?. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(1), 70–87. doi: 10.1177/1745691617713052

*Pantic, I., Milanovic, A., Loboda, B., Blachnio, A., Przepiorka, A., Nesic, D., Masic, S., Dugalic, S., & Ristic, S. (2017). Association between psycho­logical oscillations in self-esteem, narcissism, and internet addiction: A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Research, 258, 239-243. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.08.044

Park, J. H., Han, D. H., Kim, B. N., Cheong, J. H., & Lee, Y. S. (2016). Correlation among social anxiety, self-esteem, impulsivity, and game genre in patients with problematic online game playing. Psychiatry Investigation, 13(3), 297-304. doi: 10.4306/pi.2016.13.3.297

*Park, S., Kang, M., & Kim, E. (2014). Social relationship on problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents in South Korea: A moderated mediation model of self-esteem and self-control. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 349-357. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.06. 005

*Park, S., Lee, Y., & Jun, J. Y. (2017). Differences in the relationship between traumatic experience, self-esteem, negative cognition, and internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study. Psychiatry Research, 257, 381-385. doi: 10.1016/ j.psychres.2017.07.078

Perdew, L. (2015). Internet addiction. Minneapolis: Abdo Publishing.

*Perrella, R., & Caviglia, G. (2017). Internet addiction, self-esteem, and relational patterns in adolescents. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(1), 82-87.

Poli, R. (2017). Internet addiction update: Diagnostic criteria, assessment, and prevalence. Neuropsychiatry, 7(1), 4-8.

*Salarvand, S., Bagheri, Z., Keshvari, M., Dalvand, P., Gheshlagh, R. G., & Keshvari, M. (2018). The prevalence of internet addiction and its relation to the self-esteem and life satisfaction in students of a medical university. Acta Medica Iranica, 56(6), 392-397.

Samli, R. (2018). A review of internet addiction on the basis of different countries (2007-2017). Dalam B. Bozoglan (Ed.), Psychological, social and cultural aspects of internet addiction (pp. 200-219). Hershey: IGI Global.

Satici, S. A., Uysal, R., & Deniz, M. E. (2016). Linking social connectedness to loneliness: The mediating role of subjective happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 306-310. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.035

Savage, M. W., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2017). Moving toward a theory: Testing an integrated model of cyberbullying perpretation, aggression, social skills, and internet self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 353-361. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.02.016

*Seabra, L., Loureiro, M., Pereira, H., Monteiro, S., Afonso, R. M., & Esgalhado, G. (2017). Relationship between internet addiction and self-esteem: Cross-cultural study in Portugal and Brazil. Interacting with Computers, 29(5), 767-778. doi: 10.1093/iwc/iwx011

Segrin, C. (1993). Social skills deficits and psychosocial problems: Antecedent, concomitant, or consequent?. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 12(3), 336–353.

Segrin, C. (1994). Social skills and psychosocial problems among the elderly. Research on Aging, 16(3), 301–321. doi: 10.1177/0164027594163004

Segrin, C., & Flora, J. (2000). Poor social skills are a vulnerability factor in the development of psychosocial pro­blems. Human Communication Research, 26(3), 489–514. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2000.tb00766.x

Segrin, C., Hanzal, A., Donnerstein, C., Taylor, M., & Domschke, T. J. (2007). Social skills, psychological well-being, and the mediating role of perceived stress. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 20(3), 321–329. doi: 10.1080/10615800701282 252

*Senormanci, O., Saracli, O., Atasoy, N., Senormanci, G., Kokturk, F., & Atik, L. (2014). Relationship of internet addiction with cognitive style, personality, and depression in university students. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55, 1385-1390. doi: 10.1016/ j.comppsych.2014.04.025

*Servidio, R., Gentile, A., & Boca, S. (2018). The mediational role of coping strategies in the relationship between self-esteem and risk of internet addiction. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 176-187. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v14i1.1449

Shaw, M., & Black, D. W. (2006). Internet addiction: Definition, assessment, epidemiology, and clinical manage­ment. CNS Drugs, 22(5), 353-365.

*Shi, X., Wang, J., & Zou, H. (2017). Family functioning and internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: The mediating roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 201-210. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.028

*Sinkkonen, H. M., Puhakka, H., & Merilainen, M. (2018). Adolescents’ internet use in relation to self-esteem and adaptability in career decision-making. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. doi: 10.1080/03069885. 2018.1455169

Shrivastava, A., Sharma, M. K., & Marimuthu, P. (2018). Internet addiction at workplace and its implication for workers lifestyle: Exploration from Southern India. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 151-155. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2017. 11.014

*Stieger, S., & Burger, C. (2010). Implicit and explicit self-esteem in the context of internet addiction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(6), 681-688.

Tang, C. S. K., Koh, Y. W., & Gan, Y. Q. (2017). Addiction to internet use, online gaming, and online social networking among young adult in China, Singapore, and the United States. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 29(8), 673-682. doi: 10.1177/101053 9517739558

Tang, C. S. K., Wu, A. M. S., Yan, E. C. W., Ko, J. H. C., Kwon, J. H., Yogo, M., Gan, Y. Q., & Koh, Y. Y. W. (2018). Relative risks of internet-related addictions and mood disturbances among college students: A 7-country/region comparison. Public Health, 165, 16-25. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.09.010

*Wang, L., Luo, J., Bai, Y., Kong, J., Luo, J., Gao, W., & Sun, X. (2013). Internet addiction of adolescents in China: Prevalence, predictors, and association with well-being. Addiction Research and Theory, 21(1), 62-69. doi: 10.3109/16066359.2012.690053

*Yao, M. Z., He, J., Ko, D. M., & Pang, K. (2014). The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on internet addiction: A study of Chinese college students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(2), 104-110. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0710

Yellowless, P. M., & Marks, S. (2007). Problematic internet use or internet addiction? Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 1447-1453. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2005.05.004

*Yen, C. F., Chou, W. J., Liu, T. L., Yang, P., & Hu, H. F. (2014). The association of internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Compre­hensive Psychiatry, 55, 1601-1608. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.05.025

*Yildirim, M. S., Sevincer, G. M., Kandeger, A., & Afacan, C. (2018). Investigation of the relationship between risk of internet addiction, food addiction, and self-esteem in high school students. The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 31, 187-194. doi: 10.5350/ DAJPN 2018310206

*Younes, F., Halawi, G., Jabbour, H., Osta, N. E., Karam, L., Hajj, A., & Khabbaz, L. R. (2016). Internet addiction and relationships with insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress and self-esteem in university students: A cross-sectional designed study. PLoS ONE, 11(9), 1-13. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161126

Young, K. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244. doi: 10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237

Young, K. S. (2004). Internet addiction: A new clinical phenomenon and its consequences. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(4), 402-415. doi: 10.1177/ 0002764204270278

Young, K. S. (2017). The evolution of internet addiction disorder. Dalam C. Montag & M. Reuter (Eds.), Internet addiction: Neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction (pp. 3-18). Cham: Springer.

*Yucens, B., & Uzer, A. (2018). The relationship between internet addiction, social anxiety impulsivity, self-esteem, and depression in a sample of Turkish undergraduate medical students. Psychiatry Research, 267, 313-318. doi: 10.1016/ j.psychres.2018.06.033

*Zeng, W., Ye, K., Hu, Y., & Ma, Z. M. (2016). Explicit self-esteem, loneliness, and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 44(6), 965-972. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2016.44.6.965

Zhang, C., Brook, J. S., Leukefeld, C. G., & Brook, D. W. (2016). Longitudinal psychosocial factors related to symptoms of internet addiction among adults in early midlife. Addictive Behaviors, 62, 65-72. doi: 10.1016/ j.addbeh. 2016.06.019

Zhang, H., Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Luo, Y., & Wang, Z. (2017). Young adults’ internet addiction: Prediction by the interaction of parental marital conflict and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 120, 148-156. doi: 10.1016/ j.ijpsycho.2017.08.002

*Zhang, R. (2015). Internet dependence in Chinese high school students: Relationship with sex, self-esteem, and social support. Psychological Reports: Disability & Trauma, 117(1), 1-18. doi: 10.2466/18.21.PR0.117c11z0

Zhang, Y., Qin, X., & Ren, P. (2018). Adolescents’ academic engagement mediates the association between internet addiction and academic achievement: The moderating effect of classroom achievement norm. Computers in Human Behavior, 89, 299-307. doi: 10. 1016/ j.chb.2018.08.018

Zhao, J., Song, F., Chen, Q., Li, M., Wang, Y., & Kong, F. (2018). Linking shyness to loneliness in Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of core self-evaluation and social support. Personality and Individual Differences, 125, 14-144. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.007


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Buletin Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.