Kritik terhadap Penggunaan IQ dalam Diagnosis Kesulitan Belajar Spesifik

Satrio Budi Wibowo, Saifuddin Azwar, Maria Goretti Adiyanti, Supra Wimbarti
(Submitted 11 February 2019)
(Published 22 June 2020)


Kesulitan belajar spesifik sering didefinisikan sebagai pencapaian rendah yang tidak terduga. Berdasarkan konsep mengenai pencapaian rendah yang tidak terduga, model kesenjangan digunakan dalam upaya mendiagnosis kesulitan belajar spesifik. Menurut model kesenjangan, diagnosis kesulitan belajar spesifik dapat ditegakkan setelah ditemukan adanya perbedaan antara IQ dan prestasi. Namun, dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, para peneliti mempertanyakan validitas model kesenjangan dalam mendiagnosis SLD. Beberapa penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa penggunaan IQ dalam mendiagnosis SLD tidak diperlukan. Jadi kriteria diagnostik SLD dalam beberapa pedoman internasional direvisi. Salah satu manual diagnostik yang direvisi adalah Manual Diagnostik dan Statistik Gangguan Mental (DSM). Kriteria dan diagnosis tentang kesulitan belajar spesifik telah berubah, di mana model kesenjangan tidak digunakan. Makalah ini berupaya menjelaskan berbagai argumen yang mematahkan konsep model kesenjangan, sehingga penggunaan tes kecerdasan tidak lagi diperlukan dalam menegakkan diagnosis kesulitan belajar spesifik.


diagnosis; IQ; kesulitan belajar spesifik; model kesenjangan

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DOI: 10.22146/buletinpsikologi.43518


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