Kecanduan Game Online pada Remaja: Dampak dan Pencegahannya

Eryzal Novrialdy

Abstract


The problem of online game addiction demands public attention. Currently, many studies tend to be focused on efforts to reduce the level of addiction. However, there are very limited studies centered on discussing efforts to prevent this occurrence. This paper aims to examine various alternatives, in order to prevent this form of addiction, especially in adolescents that tend to be the most affected age group. In addition, there have been reports of its impact on several aspects of life, including health, psychologically, academically, socially and financially. Therefore, there is a need for preventive approaches, due to the impacts that disrupt the life of adolescents, which this paper is expected to identify. Furthermore, future research ought to focus on in-depth examination of other alternatives to prevent online game addiction.

Keywords


addiction; adolescents; prevention; online game

References


Adams, E. (2013). Fundamentals of game design (2nd ed). New York: New Riders Publishing.

Alexander, B. K. (2010). The globalization of addiction: A study in poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.

Aziz, A. (2018). Kecanduan game online, 10 anak Banyumas alami gangguan mental. Diakses 7 September 2019, dari https://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/kecanduan-game-online-10-anak-di-banyumas-alami-gangguan-mental.html

Baggio, S., Dupuis, M., Studer, J., Spilka, S., Daeppen, J. B., Simon, O., … Gmel, G. (2016). Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: Empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users. Addiction, 111(3), 513–522. doi: 10.1111/add.13192

Blakely, G., Skirton, H., Cooper, S., Allum, P., & Nelmes, P. (2010). Use of educational games in the health professions: A mixed-methods study of educators’ perspectives in the UK. Nursing and Health Sciences, 12(1), 27–32. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2009.00479.x

Brand, J. E., Todhunter, S., & Jervis, J. (2017). Digital Australia 2018 (DA18). http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Digital-Australia-2018-DA18-Final-1.pdf.

Brunborg, G. S., Mentzoni, R. A., Molde, H., Myrseth, H., Skouverøe, K. J. M., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2011). The relationship between media use in the bedroom, sleep habits and symptoms of insomnia. Journal of Sleep Research, 20(4), 569–575. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2011.00913.x

Cha, S. S., & Seo, B. K. (2018). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service and game use. Health Psychology Open, 5(1), 1–15. doi: 10.1177/2055102918755046

Chen, M. J., Grube, J. W., Nygaard, P., & Miller, B. A. (2008). Identifying social mechanisms for the prevention of adolescent drinking and driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(2), 576–585. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2007.08.013

Chen, Y. C., Chen, P. S., Hwang, J. J., Korba, L., Song, R., & Yee, G. (2005). An analysis of online gaming crime characteristics. Internet Research, 15(3), 246–261. doi: 10.1108/10662240510602672

Chou, C., Condron, L., & Belland, J. C. (2005). A review of the research on Internet addiction. Educational Psycho­logy Review, 17(4), 363–388. doi: 10.1007/s10648-005-8138-1

Dishion, T. J., Nelson, S. E., & Kavanagh, K. (2003). The Family Check-Up with high-risk young adolescents: Prevent­ingearly-onset substance use by parent monitoring. Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 553–571. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(03)80035-7

Fossum, I. N., Nordnes, L. T., Storemark, S. S., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2014). The association between use of electronic media in bed before going to sleep and insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, morningness and chronotype. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 12(5), 343–357. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2013.819468

Gentile, D. A., Bailey, K., Bavalier, D., Brockmyer, J. F., Cash, H., Coyne, S. M., … Young, K. S. (2017). Internet gaming disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 140(2), S81–S85. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758H

Ghuman, D., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). A cross-genre study of online gaming: Player demographics, motivation for play and social interactions among players. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 2(1), 13–29.

Griffin, K. W., & Botvin, G. J. (2010). Evidence-based intervention for preventing substance use disorders in adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 19(3), 505–526. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2010.03.005

Haug, S., Castro, R. P., Kwon, M., Filler, A., Kowatsch, T., & Schaub, M. P. (2015). Smartphone use and smart­phone addiction among young people in Switzerland. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(4), 299–307. doi: 10.1556/2006.4.2015.037

Hurlock, E. B. (2010). Psikologi perkembang­an: Suatu pendekatan sepanjang rentang kehidupan (Alih Bahasa Istiwidayanti) (Edisi Kelima). Jakarta: Erlangga.

Hussain, Z., & Griffiths, M. D. (2009). Excessive use of massively multi-player online role-playing games: A pilot study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7(2), 563–571. doi: 10.1007/s11469-009-9202-8

Hussain, Z., Griffiths, M. D., & Baguley, T. S. (2012). Online gaming addiction: Classification, prediction and associated risk factors. Addiction Research and Theory, 20(5), 359–371. doi: 10.3109/16066359.2011.640442

Jannah, N., Mudjiran, M., & Nirwana, H. (2015). Hubungan kecanduan game dengan motivasi belajar siswa dan implikasinya terhadap Bimbingan dan Konseling. Konselor, 4(4), 200–207. doi: 10.24036/02015446473-0-00

Jap, T., Tiatri, S., Jaya, E. S., & Suteja, M. S. (2013). The development of Indonesian online game addiction questionnaire. PLoS ONE, 8(4), 4–8. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061098

Jiang, Q. (2014). Internet addiction among young people in China: Internet connectedness, online gaming and academic performance decrement. Internet Research, 24(1), 2–20. doi: 10.1108/IntR-01-2013-0004

Jordan, C. J., & Andersen, S. L. (2016). Sensitive periods of substance abuse: Early risk for the transition to dependence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(10), 29–44. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.10.004

Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2017). Concep­tualizing internet use disorders: Addiction or coping process? Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 71(7), 459–466.

Kiesner, J., Dishion, T. J., Poulin, F., & Pastore, M. (2009). Temporal dynamics linking aspect of parental monitoring with early adolescent antisocial behavior. Social Development, 18(4), 765–784. doi: 10.1038/jid.2014.371

King, D. L., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2018). Internet gaming disorder: Theory, assess­ment, treatment and prevention. New York: Academic Press.

King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., Zwaans, T., & Kaptsis, D. (2014). Sleep interference effects of pathological electronic media use during adolescence. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(1), 21–35. doi: 10.1007/s11469-013-9461-2

Király, O., Griffiths, M. D., Urbán, R., Farkas, J., Kökönyei, G., Elekes, Z., … Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: Findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 17(12), 749–754. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0475

Kiraly, O., Nagygyörgy, K., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Problematic online gaming. In K. P. Rosenberg & L. C. Feder (Eds.), Behavioral addictions: Criteria, evidence and treatment (pp. 61–97). London, Inggris: Academic Press.

Kuss, D. J., van Rooij, A. J., Shorter, G. W., Griffiths, M. D., & van de Mheen, D. (2013). Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1987–1996.

Kwon, J. H., Chung, C. S., & Lee, J. (2011). The effects of escape from self and interpersonal relationship on the pathological use of internet games. Community Mental Health Journal, 47(1), 113–121. doi: 10.1007/s10597-009-9236-1

Lee, I., Yu, C. Y., & Lin, H. (2007). Leaving a never ending game: Quitting MMORPGs and online gaming addiction. Proceedings of DiGRA Conference, 211–217.

Li, S., Jin, X., Wu, S., Jiang, F., Yan, C., & Shen, X. (2007). The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China. Sleep, 30(3), 361–367. doi: 10.1093/sleep/30.3.361

Loke, A. Y., & Wong, Y. P. I. (2010). Smoking among young children in Hong Kong: Influence of parental smoking. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(12), 2659–2670. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05419.x

Männikkö, N., Billieux, J., & Kääriäinen, M. (2015). Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(4), 281–288. doi: 10.1556/2006.4.2015.040

Marcovitz, H. (2012). Online gaming and entertainment. San Diego, CA: Reference Point Press.

Mogro-Wilson, C. (2008). The influence of parental warmth and control on Latino adolescent alcohol use. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 30(1), 89–105. doi: 10.1177/0739986307310881

O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.

Oblinger, D., & Oblinger, J. L. (2005). Is it age or IT: First step toward under­standing the net generation. In Diana Oblinger & J. L. Oblinger (Eds.), Educating the net generation. Washing­ton D.C.: Educause.

Oka, Y., Suzuki, S., & Inoue, Y. (2008). Bedtime activities, sleep environment and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 6(4), 220–233. doi: 10.1080/15402000802371338

Peele, S. (2004). Seven tools to beat addiction. New York: Harmony.

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(2), 313–320. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00195-6

Punamäki, R. L., Wallenius, M., Nygård, C. H., Saarni, L., & Rimpelä, A. (2007). Use of information and communi­cation technology (ICT) and perceived health in adolescence: The role of sleeping habits and waking-time tiredness. Journal of Adolescence, 30(4), 569–585. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.07.004

Rania, D. (2018). 7 kematian tragis gara-gara kecanduan game online. Mirisnya kejadian seperti ini makin sering terjadi. Diakses 7 September 2019, dari https://www.hipwee.com/feature/7-kematian-tragis-gara-gara-kecanduan-game-mirisnya-kejadian-seperti-ini-makin-sering-terjadi/

Romano, J. L., & Hage, S. M. (2000). Prevention and counseling psycho­logy: Revitalizing commitments for the 21st century. The Counseling Psychologist, 28(6), 733–763.

Rudhiati, F., Apriany, D., & Hardianti, N. (2015). Hubungan durasi bermain video game dengan ketajaman pengli­hatan anak usia sekolah. Skolastik Keperawatan, 1(2), 12–17.

Russoniello, C. V., O’Brien, K., & Parks, J. M. (2009). The effectiveness of casual video games in improving mood and decreasing stress. Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 2(1), 53–66.

Sandy, T. A., & Hidayat, W. N. (2019). Game mobile learning. Malang: Multi­me­dia Edukasi.

Santrock, J. W. (2007). Remaja. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Shochat, T., Flint-Bretler, O., & Tzischinsky, O. (2010). Sleep patterns, electronic media exposure and daytime sleep-related behaviours among Israeli adolescents. Acta Paediatrica, 99(9), 1396–1400.

Smyth, J. M. (2007). Beyond self-selection in video game play: An experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10(5), 717–721. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.9963

Strittmatter, E., Kaess, M., Parzer, P., Fischer, G., Carli, V., Hoven, C. W., … Wasserman, D. (2015). Pathological internet use among adolescents: Comparing gamers and non-gamers. Psychiatry Research, 228(1), 128–135. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.029

Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995). Understanding information techno­logy usage: A test of competing models. Information System Research, 6(2), 144–176.

Tsitsika, A., Janikian, M., Schoenmakers, T. M., Tzavela, E. C., Ólafsson, K., Wójcik, S., … Richardson, C. (2014). Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: A cross-sectional study in seven European countries. Cyberpsy­chology, Behavior and Social Networking, 17(8), 528–535. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2013.0382

van Den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., Spijkerman, R., Vermulst, A. A., van Rooij, T. J., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2010). Compulsive internet use among adolescents: Bidirectional parent-child relation­ships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psycho­logy, 38(1), 77–89. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9347-8

van Rooij, A. J., Schoenmakers, T. M., Vermulst, A. A., van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., & van de Mheen, D. (2011). Online video game addiction: Identification of addicted adolescent gamers. Addiction, 106(1), 205–212. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03104.x

Wang, C. W., Chan, C. L. W., Mak, K. K., Ho, S. Y., Wong, P. W. C., & Ho, R. T. H. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: A pilot study. The Scientific World Journal, 14(8), 1–9. doi: 10.1155/2014/874648

Wells, J., Barlow, J., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2003). A systematic review of universal approaches to mental health promotion in schools. Health Education, 103(4), 197–220. doi: 10.1108/09654280310485546

World Health Organization. (2018). Gaming disorder. Diakses 7 September 2019, dari https://www.who.int/features/qa/gaming-disorder/en/

Williams, D. (2006). Groups and goblins: The social and covoc impact of an online game. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(4), 651–670. doi: 10.1207/s15506878jobem5004_5

Xu, Z., Turel, O., & Yuan, Y. (2012). Online game addiction among adolescents: Motivation and prevention factors. European Journal of Information Systems, 21(3), 321–340. doi: 10.1057/ejis.2011.56

Xu, Z., & Yuan, Y. (2008). The impact of motivation and prevention factors on game addiction. Proceeding of SIGHCI.

Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237–244. doi: 10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237

Zhou, Z., Yuan, G., & Yao, J. (2012). Cognitive biases toward internet game-related pictures and executive deficits in individuals with an internet game addiction. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e48961. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048961


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/buletinpsikologi.47402

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Buletin Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.