A Deep Overview of Anticoagulant Drugs: Recent Synthesis and Their Activity Assay


Engrid Juni Astuti(1), Slamet Ibrahim(2), Muhammad Ali Zulfikar(3), Sophi Damayanti(4*)

(1) Pharmacochemistry Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Jl. Bendungan Sutami No. 188, Malang 65145, Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Jl. Terusan Jenderal Sudirman, Cimahi 40633, Indonesia
(3) Division on Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
(4) Pharmacochemistry Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia; University Center of Excellence on Artificial Intelligence for Vision, Natural Language Processing & Big Data Analysis (U-CoE AI-VLB), Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


During the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, anticoagulant drugs have emerged as a crucial component of treatment alongside antivirus medications. Patients with severe COVID-19 frequently have critical conditions marked by blood clot development, necessitating the administration of anticoagulants. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of various anticoagulant drugs, their synthesis methods, and assays employed to predict their anticoagulant activity. Notable anticoagulant categories frequently utilized include oral anticoagulants heparin, non-vitamin K antagonists, and vitamin K antagonists. In recent years, the development of new anticoagulants has seen a shift towards a multifaceted approach that combines in silico prediction with in vitro and in vivo assays. In silico prediction techniques play a pivotal role in the initial screening process. This integrated approach has yielded promising results, paving the way for the synthesis of novel anticoagulant candidates, as substantiated by a battery of in vitro, in vivo, and ex-vivo tests.


anticoagulant, prediction, synthesis, anticoagulant activity

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.87252

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