Cover Image

The potential of organic matter and water management on the alleviation of iron toxicity in rice plants

Nurkholish Nugroho(1*), Budiastuti Kurniasih(2), Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami(3), Wahida Annisa Yusuf(4)

(1) Indonesian Center for Rice Research Jl. Raya 9, Sukamandi, Subang, West Java 41256, Indonesia
(2) Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora no. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora no. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Indonesian Swampland Agricultural Research Institute Jl. Kebun Karet, Loktabat Utara PO BOX 31, Banjarbaru, South Borneo 70712, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Iron toxicity in rice plants occurs due to the excessive concentrations of ferrous ions (Fe2+) in the soil solution. The application of organic matter and water management is one way to alleviate iron toxicity in rice plants. This study aimed to determine the potential of organic matter and water management in controlling the solubility of Fe2+ in the soil and its effect on the symptoms of toxicity, growth and yield of rice plants. The research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Indonesian Swampland Agricultural Research Institute from August to December 2020, arranged in a completely randomized design with three factors. The first factor consisted of low Fe2+ concentration (<300 ppm, actual acid sulfate soil (AASS)) and high Fe2+ concentration (>300 ppm, potential acid sulfate soil (PASS)), the second factor consisted of waterlogging without leaching and leaching of once every two weeks, and the third factor consisted of without organic matter amendment and with organic matter amendment of 2.5 ton.ha-1. The results showed that the soil leaching in acid sulfate soils decreased the activity of PPO by 10.28% and increased yield by 10.10%. Meanwhile, the application of organic matter in acid sulfate soil decreased the activity of PPO by 8.91% and increased yield by 8.06%. The leaching of once every two weeks and organic matter amendment of 2.5 ton.ha-1 are recommended to alleviate iron toxicity and increase rice productivity in acid sulfate soil.


actual acid sulfate soil; iron toxicity; leaching; organic matter; potential acid sulfate soil

Full Text:



Annisa, W. and Nursyamsi, D. (2016a). Iron dynamics and its relation to soil redox potential and plant growth in acid sulphate soil of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17(1), pp. 1–8.

Annisa, W. and Nursyamsi, D. (2016b). Pengaruh amelioran , pupuk dan sistem pengelolaan tanah sulfat masam terhadap hasil padi dan emisi metana. Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim, 40(2), pp. 135–145.

Ar-riza, I., Alwi, M., and Nurita (2015). Peningkatan hasil padi di tanah sulfat masam melalui kombinasi perlakuan lindi dan olah tanah. J. Agron. Indonesia, 43(2), pp. 105–110.

Balai Penelitian Tanah. (2009) Petunjuk Teknis Analisis Kimia Tanah, Tanaman, Air dan Pupuk. 2nd ed. Bogor: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. pp. 7-119.

Fahmi, A., Radjagukguk, B., and Purwanto, B. H. (2012). The leaching of iron and loss of phosphate in acid sulphate soil due to rice straw and phosphate fertilizer application. J. Trop. Soils, 17(1), pp. 19–24.

Herviyanti, Prasetyo, T.B., Achmad, F., and Saidi, A. (2012). Humic acid and water management to decrease ferro (fe2+) solution and increase productivity of established new rice field. J. Trop. Soils, 17(1), pp. 9–17.

Khairullah, I., Indrayati, L., Hairani, A., and Susilawati, A. (2011). Pengaturan waktu tanam dan tata air untuk mengendalikan keracunan besi pada tanaman padi di lahan rawa pasang surut sulfat masam potensial tipe B. Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim. Edisi Khusus Rawa. 1, pp. 13–24.

Li, G., Kronzucker, H. J., and Shi, W. (2016). The response of the root apex in plant adaptation to iron heterogeneity in soil. Frontier in Plant Science, 7(344), pp. 1–7.

Mahender, A., Swamy, B.P.M., Anandan, A., and Ali, J. (2019). Tolerance of iron-deficient and -toxic soil conditions in rice. Plants, 8(31), pp. 1–34.

Mehraban, P., Zadeh, A.A., and Sadhegipour, H.R. (2008). Iron toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different pottasium nutrition. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 7(3), pp. 251–258.

Napisah, K., Maas, A., Utami, S.N.H., and Yusuf, W.A. (2020). The role of iron oxidizing bacteria to the quality of leachate on acid sulphate soil. Ilmu Pertanian (Agricultural Science), 5(1), pp. 35–44.

Noor, A., Lubis, I., Ghulamahdi, M., Chozin, M.A., Anwar, K., and Wirnas, D. (2012). Pengaruh konsentrasi besi dalam larutan hara terhadap gejala keracunan besi dan pertumbuhan tanaman padi. J. Agron. Indonesia, 40(2), pp. 91–98.

Noor, M. and Rahman, A. (2015). Biodiversitas dan kearifan lokal dalam budidaya tanaman pangan mendukung kedaulatan pangan : Kasus di lahan rawa pasang surut. Pros. Sem. Nas. Masy. Biodiv. Indonesia, 1, pp. 1861–1867.

Nursyamsi, D., Raihan, S., Noor, M., Anwar, K. Alwi, M., Maftuah, E., Khairullah, I., Ar-riza, I., Simatupang, R.S., Noorginayuwati, and Fahmi, A. (2014). Pedoman umum pengelolaan lahan sulfat masam untuk pertanian berkelanjutan. 1st ed. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. pp. 1-46.

Reddy, K.R. and Delaune, R.D. (2008). The bigeochemistry of wetland; Science and application. 1st ed. New York: CRC Press. pp. 1-800.

Reyt, G., Boudouf, S., Boucherez, J., Gaymard, F., and Briat, J.-F. (2015). Iron- and ferritin-dependent reactive oxygen species distribution : impact on arabidopsis root system architecture. Molecular Plant, 8, pp. 439–453.

Saikia, T. and Baruah, K.K. (2012). Iron toxicity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) and its association with anti-oxidative enzyme activity. Journal of Crop Science, 3(3), pp. 90–94.

Shamshuddin, J., Elisa, A.A., Siti, M.A.R., and Auziah, I.C. (2013). Rice defense mechanisms against the presence of excess amount of Al3+ and Fe2+ in the water. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 7(3), pp. 314–320.

Soil Survey Staff. (2014). Keys to soil taxonomy. 14th ed. United State: Natural Resources Conservation Service-USDA. pp. 135-210.

Susilawati, A. and Fahmi, A. (2013). Dinamika besi pada tanah sulfat masam yang ditanami padi. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan, 7(2), pp. 67–75.

Susilawati, A. and Nursyamsi, D. (2013) Residu jerami padi untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tanah sulfat masam berkelanjutan. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan, 7(1), pp. 27–37.

Zhang, L., Li, G., Wang, M., Di, D., Sun, L., Kronzucker, H.J., and Shi, W. (2018). Excess iron stress reduces root tip zone growth through nitric oxide-mediated repression of potassium homeostasis in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist, 219(1), pp. 1–16.

Zhang, Z., Xiao, C., Adeyeye, O., Liang, X., Yang, W., and Liang, X. (2020). Source and mobilization mechanism of iron, manganese and arsenic in Groundwater of’Shuangliao City, Northeast China. Water, 12(534), pp. 1–17.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1262 | views : 797


  • There are currently no refbacks.