Examining Positive Emotions on Student Engagement during COVID-19 Situation with Academic Psychological Capital as a Mediating Variable

Nerinda Rizky Firdaus, Wiwin Hendriani, Nono Hery Yoenanto
(Submitted 25 July 2020)
(Published 25 April 2022)


Student engagement is an important aspect of an individual's school adaptation and adjustment to changes . Students who engage in learning will be more likely to succeed in their studies and get good performance. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive emotions on student engagement with academic psychological capital as a mediator. This study adopted a survey method in which 396 seventh grade students of nine junior high schools in Surabaya city participated in cluster random sampling and stratified random sampling was employed as recruitment strategies. The data collected were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with Partial Least Squares approach. Results indicate that academic psychological capital partially mediates the influence of positive emotions on student engagement. Partial mediation shows that positive emotions have a direct influence on students' engagement to the existence of academic psychological capital as a mediator.


academic psychological capital; middle school students; positive emotions; student engagement

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/jpsi.58125


Addi-Raccah, A., Biran, H., & Freedman-Goldberg, S. (2011). Scientific Review Commissioned by the Language and Literacy Committee Middle Schools: Characteristics and Challenges (*). http://education.academy.ac.il/english/homepage.aspx

Alamri, H., Lowell, V., Watson, W., & Watson, S. L. (2020). Using personalized learning as an instructional approach to motivate learners in online higher education: Learner self-determination and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(3), 322–352. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1728449

Almendingen, K., Morseth, M. S., Gjølstad, E., Brevik, A., & Tørris, C. (2021). Student’s experiences with online teaching following covid-19 lockdown: A mixed methods explorative study. PLOS ONE, 16(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250378

Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2020). Classroom Motivation. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003013600

Arikunto, S. (2010). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Rineka Cipta.

Ashwin, P., & McVitty, D. (2015). The Meanings of Student Engagement: Implications for Policies and Practices. In The European Higher Education Area (pp. 343–359). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20877-0_23

Astuti, F., Sumarwan, U., & Qayim, I. (2016). The Role of Student Engagement in the Success of Study of Scholarship Awardee Students of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 3, 106–114. https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509/2016.3.3/509.3.106.114

Avey, J. B. (2014). The Left Side of Psychological Capital. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(2), 141–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813515516

Azwar, S. (2013). Sikap Manusia: Teori dan Pengukurannya. Pustaka Pelajar.

Baltà-Salvador, R., Olmedo-Torre, N., Peña, M., & Renta-Davids, A.-I. (2021). Academic and emotional effects of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic on engineering students. Education and Information Technologies, 26(6), 7407–7434. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10593-1

Bedenlier, S., Bond, M., Buntins, K., Zawacki-Richter, O., & Kerres, M. (2020). Facilitating student engagement through educational technology in higher education: A systematic review in the field of arts and humanities. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 126–150. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.5477

Biancalana, & Elisa, V. (2013). Increasing Student Engagement In The Middle School Classroom. https://digitalcommons.nl.edu/diss/72

Carmona-Halty, M., Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2019). Good Relationships, Good Performance: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital A Three-Wave Study Among Students. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00306

Chiu, T. K. F., Jong, M. S., & Mok, I. A. C. (2020). Does learner expertise matter when designing emotional multimedia for learners of primary school mathematics? Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(5), 2305–2320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09775-4

Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., & Wylie, C. (2012). Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie, Eds.). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7

Datu, J. A. D., & Valdez, J. P. M. (2015). Psychological Capital Predicts Academic Engagement and Well-Being in Filipino High School Students. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(3), 399–405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-015-0254-1

Denovan, A., Dagnall, N., Macaskill, A., & Papageorgiou, K. (2019). Future time perspective, positive emotions and student engagement: a longitudinal study. Studies in Higher Education, 45(7), 1533–1546. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1616168

Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Iver, D. mac. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage environment fit on young adolescents experiences in schools and in families (1993). In The evolution of psychology: Fifty years of the American Psychologist. (pp. 475–501). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10254-034

Finn, J. D., & Zimmer, K. S. (2012). Student Engagement: What Is It? Why Does It Matter? In Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (pp. 97–131). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_5

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What Good Are Positive Emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300–319. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.56.3.218

Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive Emotions Broaden and Build. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (pp. 1–53). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-407236-7.00001-2

Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive Emotions Trigger Upward Spirals Toward Emotional Well-Being. Psychological Science, 13(2), 172–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00431

Gallup. (2018). ). Superintendents Say Engagement, Hope Best Measures of Success.

Ghozali, I., & Latan, L. (2014). Partial Least Squares. konsep, metode, & aplikasi menggunakan program WarpPLS 4.0. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Gong, Z., Liu, Q., Jiao, X., & Tao, M. (2018). The Influence of College Students’ Psychological Capital on Study Engagement. Psychology, 09(13), 2782–2793. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2018.913160

Hancock, K. J., & Zubrick, S. (2015). Children and young people at risk of disengagement from school. Commissioner for Children and Young People.

Hartnett, M. (2016). Motivation in Online Education. Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0700-2

Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307–324. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.6.4.307

Hurlock, E. B. (2001). Developmental psychology. McGraw-Hill Education.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724. https://doi.org/10.5465/256287

Kahu, E. R. (2013). Framing student engagement in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 38(5), 758–773. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.598505

Kemendikbud. (2019). Jumlah Data Peserta Didik Per Kabupaten/Kota : Kota Surabaya - Data Referensi Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. https://referensi.data.kemdikbud.go.id/

Krause, K.-L., & Coates, H. (2008). Students’ engagement in first-year university. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 493–505. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930701698892

Kuh, G. D. (2009). What Student Affairs Professionals Need to Know About Student Engagement. Journal of College Student Development, 50(6), 683–706. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.0.0099

Luthans, B. C., Luthans, K. W., & Avey, J. B. (2013). Building the Leaders of Tomorrow. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(2), 191–199. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813517003

Luthans, B. C., Luthans, K. W., & Jensen, S. M. (2012). The Impact of Business School Students’ Psychological Capital on Academic Performance. Journal of Education for Business, 87(5), 253–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2011.609844

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford University Press.

Luthans, F., & Youssef-Morgan, C. M. (2017). Psychological Capital: An Evidence-Based Positive Approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4(1), 339–366. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032516-113324

Luthans, K. W., Luthans, B. C., & Palmer, N. F. (2016). A positive approach to management education. Journal of Management Development, 35(9), 1098–1118. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmd-06-2015-0091

Makmun, A. , S. (2003). Karakteristik Perilaku dan Kepribadian pada Masa Remaja. Rosydakarya.

Martin, A. J., & Collie, R. J. (2019). Teacherstudent relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(5), 861–876. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000317

Mustika, R. A., & Kusdiyati, S. (2015). Studi Deskriptif Student Engagement pada Siswa Kelas XI IPS di SMA Pasundan 1 Bandung. Prosiding Psikologi Spesia Seminar Penelitian Sivitas Akademika Unisba, 244–251. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/.v0i0.1204

NSSE. (2018). NSSE 2018 Engagement Indicators University of Kansas. https://air.ku.edu/sites/air.ku.edu/files/files/NSSE/NSSE18%20Engagement%20Indicators%20%28KU%29.pdf

Oriol-Granado, X., Mendoza-Lira, M., Covarrubias-Apablaza, C.-G., & Molina-López, V.-M. (2017). Positive Emotions, Autonomy Support and Academic Performance of University Students: The Mediating Role of Academic Engagement and Self-efficacy. Revista de Psicodidáctica (English Ed.), 22(1), 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1387/revpsicodidact.14280

Ouweneel, E., Blanc, P. M. le, & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Flourishing students: A longitudinal study on positive emotions, personal resources, and study engagement. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 142–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.558847

Pascarella, E. T., Seifert, T. A., & Blaich, C. (2010). How Effective are the NSSE Benchmarks in Predicting Important Educational Outcomes? Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 42(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091380903449060

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, Eds.). Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1521/978.14625/28806

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Yes, I Can, I Feel Good, and I Just Do It! On Gain Cycles and Spirals of Efficacy Beliefs, Affect, and Engagement. Applied Psychology, 60(2), 255–285. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2010.00435.x

Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2007). Managing Social and Ethical Issues in Organizations edited by Stephen W. Gilliland, Dirk D. Steiner, and Daniel P. Skarlicki. Personnel Psychology, 60(4), 1064–1067. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00101_5.x

Schaufeli, W., & Bakker, A. (2004). Utrecht Work Engagement Scale: Preliminary Manual. Occupational Health Psychology Unit Utrecht University.

Sharma, B. R., & Bhaumik, P. K. (2013). Student Engagement and Its Predictors: An Exploratory Study in an Indian Business School. Global Business Review, 14(1), 25–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150912466364

Sholihin, M., & Ratmono, D. (2013). Analisis SEM-PLS dengan WarpPLS 3.0 untuk hubungan nonlinier dalam penelitian sosial dan bisnis. Penerbit Andi.

Siu, O. L., Bakker, A. B., & Jiang, X. (2013). Psychological Capital Among University Students: Relationships with Study Engagement and Intrinsic Motivation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(4), 979–994. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9459-2

UNESCO. (2020). Education: From disruption to recovery UNESCO. Https://En.Unesco.Org/Covid19/Educationresponse.

Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of School Engagement in Association With Academic Success and Well-Being in Varying Social Contexts. European Psychologist, 18(2), 136–147. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000143

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Wibowo, W. , P. (2019). Pengaruh Konsep Diri, Kecerdasan Emosional dan Dukungan Keluarga terhadap Student Engagement Siswa Madrasah Aliyah .

Wimpenny, K., & Savin-Baden, M. (2013). Alienation, agency and authenticity: a synthesis of the literature on student engagement. Teaching in Higher Education, 18(3), 311–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2012.725223

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.11.003

Xie, K., & Ke, F. (2010). The role of students motivation in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(6), 916–930. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01140.x

You, J. W. (2016). The relationship among college students psychological capital, learning empowerment, and engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.05.001


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.