Perspective of Justice among Advocates of Rape Victims

Mutia Husna Avezahra, Koentjoro Koentjoro
(Submitted 29 September 2021)
(Published 26 August 2022)


Rape cases involve various factors and perspectives. This study explored factors in constructing the perspective of justice among advocates of rape victims in Malang, East Java. This study adopted the qualitative phenomenology approach with semi-structured in-depth interview for data collection, and thematic analysis as the data analysis technique. The participants of this study were six advocates from two different women support groups and two experts, one was a Law lecturer and an investigator in the Woman and Children Service Unit (Unit Pelayanan Perempuan dan Anak) (UPPA) at Malang Police Department. The result revealed that justice perspectives of advocates were mainly rooted in the feminist concept at their ideological level; and therefore, the perceived meaning of justice tend to be idealistic and participants were rather dissatisfied with the existing legal system. Participants further expressed their self-interest to advocate based on the shared gender identity as women with the rape victims. As such, findings of this study might inform the evaluation of prevailing procedure and the substances of law enforcement leading to accommodating the needs of rape victims.


rape cases; procedural justice; victim advocates; justice perspective

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/jpsi.69451


Allen, W. D. (2007). The Reporting and Underreporting of Rape. Southern Economic Journal, 73(3), 623–641.

Baillot, H., Cowan, S., & Munro, V. E. (2009). Seen but Not Heard? Parallels and Dissonances in the Treatment of Rape Narratives across the Asylum and Criminal Justice Contexts. Journal of Law and Society, 36(2), 195–219.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) 'Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology'. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3 (2), 77-101

Campbell, B. A., Menaker, T. A., & King, W. R. (2015). The determination of victim credibility by adult and juvenile sexual assault investigators. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(1), 29-39. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2014.12.001

Faturochman. (2002). Keadilan Perspektif Psikologi [Justice in Psychological Perspective]. Yogyakarta: Unit Penerbitan Fakultas Psikologi UGM dengan Pustaka Pelajar

Festinger (1954). L. A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations. 1954;7(2):117-140. doi:10.1177/001872675400700202

Gaines, D. C., & Wells, W. (2017). Investigators’ and prosecutors’ perceptions of collaborating with victim advocates on sexual assault casework. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28(6), 555-569. doi:10.1177/0887403415592176

Hlavka, H. R. (2014). Normalizing Sexual Violence: Young Women Account for Harassment and Abuse. Gender and Society, 28(3), 337–358.

Jamel, J. (2010). Researching the Provision of Service to Rape Victims by Specially Trained Police Officers: The Influence of Gender–An Exploratory Study. New Criminal Law Review: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal, 13(4), 688–709.

Jones, J. S., Alexander, C., Wynn, B. N., Rossman, L., & Dunnuck, C. (2009). Why women don't report sexual assault to the police: the influence of psychosocial variables and traumatic injury. The Journal of emergency medicine, 36(4), 417–424.

Jordan, J. (2004). Beyond belief?: Police, rape and women's credibility. Criminal Justice: International Journal of Policy & Practice, 4(1), 29-59. doi:10.1177/1466802504042222

Koentjoro. (2010). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif untuk Ilmu-ilmu Sosial [Qualitative Research Method for Social Sciences].

Jakarta: Salemba Humanika

Komnas Perempuan. (2020, 1 Juli). Pernyataan Sikap Tentang Penundaan DPR RI pada Pembahasan RUU tentang Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual dalam Prolegnas 2020 (1 Juli 2020) [Statement of Attitude Regarding the Postponement of the Indonesian House of Representatives in the Discussion of Sexual Violence Elimination Bill in the 2020 Prolegnas (July 1, 2020].

Komnas Perempuan. (2021, 5 Maret). Lembar Fakta dan Poin Kunci Catatan Tahunan Komnas Perempuan Tahun 2020.

Komnas Perempuan. (2019, 6 Maret). Lembar Fakta dan Poin Kunci Catatan Tahunan Komnas Perempuan Tahun 2019 [Fact Sheet and Key Points of the 2019 Komnas Perempuan Annual Note].

Komnas Perempuan. (2018, 7 Maret). Lembar Fakta dan Poin Kunci Catatan Tahunan Komnas Perempuan Tahun 2018 [Fact Sheet and Key Points of the 2018 Komnas Perempuan Annual Note].

Komnas Perempuan. (2017, 7 Maret). Lembar Fakta dan Poin Kunci Catatan Tahunan Komnas Perempuan Tahun 2017 [Fact Sheet and Key Points of the 2017 Komnas Perempuan Annual Note].

Korstjens, I & Moser, Albine (2018) Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 4: Trustworthiness and publishing, European Journal of General Practice, 24:1,120-124, DOI: 10.1080/13814788.2017.1375092

Kumari, V., & Barn, R. (2017). Sentencing In Rape Cases: A Critical Appraisal Of Judicial Decisions In India. Journal of the Indian Law Institute, 59(1), 1–25.

La Kahija, YF. (2017). Penelitian Fenomenologis : Jalan memahami pengalaman hidup [A Phenomenological Research: Way to Understand Life Experiences]. Yogyakarta : Kanisius.

Lind, E. & Tyler, Tom. (1988). The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. 10.2307/2073346.

McGlynn, C. (2011). Feminism, Rape and the Search for Justice. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 31(4), 825–842.

Montada L., Maes J. (2016) Justice and Self-Interest. In: Sabbagh C., Schmitt M. (eds) Handbook of Social Justice Theory and Research. Springer, New York, NY.

Nirmalasari, A., & Sarwono, B. (2021). Symbolic Violence Manifestation Behind Victim Blaming Practices. Proceedings Of The Asia-Pacific Research In Social Sciences And Humanities Universitas Indonesia Conference (APRISH 2019). doi: 10.2991/assehr.k.210531.004

Patterson, D., & Tringali, B. (2015). Understanding how advocates can affect sexual assault victim engagement in the criminal justice process. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(12), 1987-1997. doi:10.1177/0886260514552273

Payne, B. K., & Thompson, R. A. (2008). Sexual assault crisis centre workers' perceptions of law enforcement: Defining the situation from a systems perspective. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 10(1), 23-35. doi:10.1350/ijps.2008.10.1.23

Pratasis, S. O. (2014). Implementasi teori keadilan komutatif terhadap pelaku pemerkosaan menurut pasal 285 KUHP [The Implementation of Commutative Justice Theory Towards Rapist According to Article 285 KUHP]. Lex Et Societatis, Retrieved from

Regehr, C., & Alaggia, R. (2006). Perspectives of justice for victims of sexual violence. Victims & Offenders, 1(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/15564880500498721

Scoglio, A. A. J., Marine, S. B., & Molnar, B. E. (2020). Responder perspectives on justice and healing for sexual violence survivors. Psychology of Violence, doi:10.1037/vio0000344

Syafioedin, M. H., & Faturochman. (2001). Hukuman bagi pemerkosa & perlindungan bagi korban [Punishment for Rapists & Protection for Victims]. In M. Darwin, & Tukiran (Eds.), Menggugat budaya patriarki [Accusing Patriarchal Culture] (pp. 103-132). Yogyakarta: PPK UGM & Ford Foundation.

Thibaut, I., & Walker, L. (1978). A theory of procedure. California Law Review, 66, 541- 566

Poerwandari, E. K., Utami, C. P., & Primasari, I. (2021). Ambivalent sexism and sexual objectification of women as predictors of rape myth acceptance among male college students in Greater Jakarta. Current Psychology, 40(12), 5909-5918.

Tyler, T. R. (1988). What is Procedural Justice?: Criteria used by Citizens to Assess the Fairness of Legal Procedures. Law & Society Review, 22(1), 103–135.

Tyler, T. R., & Lind, E. A. (1992). A relational model of authority in groups. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 25, pp. 115–191). Academic Press.

Wood, J. V. (1996). What is social comparison and how should we study it? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(5), 520–5

Yi, Beh Lih. (2016, July 25). Over 90 percent rape cases go unreported in Indonesia: poll.

Yusuf, I. (2018, November 25). Victim-blaming culture holds back #MeToo in Indonesia. The Conversation. available from ( indonesia-106671)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.