Host and environmental factors of malaria among Orang Rimba in Jambi: a host intermediate characteristics study
A host intermediate characteristics study
Malaria is a disease that is still a threat to humans. In 2017, there were at least 219 million malaria cases worldwide, with around 1.017 million cases in Indonesia and 13.6 thousand cases in Jambi Province. In 2018, the Jambi Provincial Government targeted Jambi to be malaria-free by 2027. Deforestation has affected the bionomy of the Anopheles mosquito as a malaria vector. Orang Rimba is one of the indigenous groups in Jambi whose livelihoods depend on the forest. The malaria morbidity rate in Orang Rimba is 245.3 0/000. This number is inversely proportional to malaria incidence in Jambi Province of 0.84 0/000. This research aimed to prove and analyze the host's characteristics, the environment, and the host's perception that affected the existence of the Orang Rimba tribe. Methods: This research used mixed methods, a combination of analytical-qualitative research methods with quantitative with a cross-sectional design. The results showed that the host factor influencing malaria incidence was the productive age category with a value of Exp.B= 0.062 (95% CI 0.004-0.915) P-value of 0.043. Most respondents perceived malaria as a disease that attacked, especially at the peak of the fruit season. Respondents used several ways to control malaria, such as consuming traditional medicine, using smoke, and increasing mobilization to natural forest areas. Meanwhile, the host and environmental factors that did not affect the incidence of malaria were the density of Anopheles larvae, Anopheles mosquitoes, and predatory animals, the habit of consuming traditional medicines, using mosquito nets, and hunting, and the respondent's residence location. Conclusion: The definitive host characteristics that influenced malaria incidence were productive age, host perception, and host behavior.