Reproduction and Growth Performance of Kampung Unggul Balitbangtan (KUB) Chicken Cross

Galuh Adi Insani(1*), Dyah Maharani(2), Stefanie Silvia(3), Vellina Putri Handayani(4), Wihandoyo Wihandoyo(5)

(1) Department of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(5) Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


In Indonesia, one of the sources of regional livestock genetic diversity is the kampung chicken. This study aimed to assess the development and reproductive potential of F1 Kampung Unggul Balitbangtan (KUB) crosses (KUB roosters with different types of combs crossed to layer chickens). This research was conducted at a private chicken company in Gunungkidul regency using 40 KUB roosters and 320 layer chicks. The KUB roosters were separated into four groups based on their comb types: single, walnut, and double. Each set of ten males was housed in a single cage, with a male-to-female ratio of one to eight (male and female). Observed reproductive variables included egg weight (EW), hatch weight (HW), fertility, hatchability, number of eggs, number of day-old chicks (DOCs), and number of saleable chicks. The body weight (BW) of the offspring at ages ranging from DOC, 4, 8, to 12 weeks of age is one measure of their growth characteristics. The analysis of variance using a one-way design and the DMRT test were performed to describe the difference in growth and reproductive performance across groups. As a result, each comb type revealed a significant difference in EW, HW, fertility, hatchability, egg and chick production, DOC, and saleable chick production (P<0.05). Compared to other combs, the single comb performed the best in terms of EW, HW, fertility, number of eggs, and number of DOC. The most hatchable and sellable chicks were from walnut comb. Therefore, comb size has a positive correlation with chicken reproduction and productivity. Comb type groups have no effect on BW at 12 weeks (P>0.05), while they significantly affect BW for DOC at 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). The rose comb shows BW at its maximum point. In conclusion, the rose comb has the biggest body weight and the single comb has the best reproductive performance in comparison to other comb types.


Comb shapes; Growth, KUB chicken cross, Reproduction

Full Text:



Abubakar, E. Suprijatna, and Sutopo. 2014. Genotype Distribution of Local Chicken Crosbred in Poultry Breeding Centre Temanggung-Central Jawa. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES). Volume 3, Issue 3, PP.01-14.

Biyatmoko, D. 2003. Permodelan usaha pengembangan ayam buras dan upaya perbaikannya di pedesaan. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian. Kalimantan Selatan. 1-10

Buckland, RB. 1965. The Influence of The Rose and Pea Comb Genes on Reproductive Performance in The Male Fowl. Pp. 30-33.

Crawford RD, Merritt E. 1963. The relationship between Rose Comb and reproduction in the domestic fowl. Can J Genet Cytol. 5:89–95.

Crawford RD, Smyth JRJ. 1964. Studies of the relationship between fertility and the gene for Rose Comb in the domestic fowl - 2. The relationship between comb genotype and duration of fertility. Poultry Sci. 43:1018–1026.

Creswell and B. Gunawan. 1982. Ayam-ayam lokal di Indonesia: sifat-sifat produksi dan lingkungan yang baik. Balai Penelitian Ternak Bogor Indonesia. 2 : 9-14.

Darwish A., Hataba N. A., Shalash S. M. 1990. Effects of seasonal variation and dietary protein level on some performance of Fayoumi layers. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Feed and Quality Control. Cairo, Egypt. pp. 443–459.

Diwyanto, K., D. Zainuddin, T. Sartika, S. Rahayu, Djufri, C. Arifin and Cholil. 1996. “Model pengembangan peternakan rakyat terpadu berorientasi agribisnis: Komoditas ternak ayam buras” (Model of integrated kampung chicken small holders’ husbandry). Directorate General of Livestock and Research Institute for Animal Production, Jakarta-Bogor.

Dessie T., Taye T., Dana N., Ayalew W., Hanotte O. 2011. Current state of knowledge on phenotypic characteristics of indigenous chickens in the tropics. World's Poultry Science Journal. 67(3):507–516. doi: 10.1017/S0043933911000559.

Funaro, A., V. Cardenia, M. Petracci, S. Rimini, M. T. Rodriguez-Estrada, and C. Cavani. 2014. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and oxidative stability between conventional and free-range chickens. Journal of Poultry Science 93, 1511–1522.

Hidayat, C., and S. A. Asmarasari. 2015. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review. Jurnal Peternakan Indonesia. 17 (1) : 1 – 11. doi: 10.25077/jpi.17.1.1-11.2015

Iriyanti, N., Zuprizal, Tri-Yuwanta, dan S. Keman. 2007. Penggunaan vitamin E dalam pakan terhadap fertilitas, daya tetas dan bobot tetas telur ayam kampung. J. Anim. Prod. 9(1): 36−39.

King’ori, A.M., 2011. Review of the Factors That Influence Egg Fertility and Hatchabilty in Poultry. Asian Network for Scientific Information. Vol. 10, Issue 6,

Kirby, J.D., H.N. Engel, and D.P. Froman. 1994. Analysis of subfertility associated with homozygosity of the rose comb allele in the male domestic fowl. Poultry Sci. 73(5-8): 871-878.

Lourens, A., H. van den Brand, M.J.W. Heetkamp, R. Meijerhof, B. Kemp, Effects of Eggshell Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Embryo Growth and Metabolism During Incubation, Poultry Science, Volume 86, Issue 10, 2007, Pages 2194-2199, ISSN 0032-5791, doi:

Maria Ulfah, Dyah Perwitasari , Jakaria , Muladno and Achmad Farajallah. 2015. Breed Determination for Indonesian Local Chickens Based on Matrilineal Evolution Analysis. International Journal of Poultry Science 14 (11): 615-621.

Mauldin J.M. 2002. Factors Affecting Hatchability. In: Bell D.D., Weaver W.D. (eds) Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Springer, Boston, MA., doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-0811-3_39.

Mtambo M. M. A. 2000. Improving the health and productivity of the rural chickens in Africa: report of Phase 1 of an Enreca Sponsored Project.

Mukhtar N, Khan SH. 2012. Comb: an important reliable visual ornamental trait for selection in chickens. Worlds Poultry Science Journal 68, 425–433002.

Muharlien, A. dan R, Rachmawati. 2011. Meningkatkan Produksi Ayam Pedaging Melalui Pengaturan Proporsi Sekam, Pasir, dan Kapur Sebagai Litter. Jurnal Ternak Tropika. Vol. 12, No.1: 38-45.

Narinç D., Aydemir E., 2021, Chick quality: an overview of measurement techniques and influencing factors, World's Poultry Science Journal, Volume 77, Issue 2, doi: 10.1080/00439339.2021.1892469

Noor RR. 2004. Genetika Ternak. Cetakan ke-3. Jakarta (ID): Penebar Swadaya

Resnawati, H. and Ida A. K. Stars. 2006. Productivity of Local Chickens were Kept under Intensive. Livestock Research Institute. Bogor. P. 121-125

Scanes, C. G., G. Brant, and M. E. Ensminger. 2004. Chapter 16: Turkeys and turkey meat. Page 278 in Poultry Science. 4th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Schantz TV, Tufvesson M, Goransson G, Grahn M, Wilhelmson M, Wittzell H. 1995. Artificial Selection for increase comb size and its effects on other sexual characters and viability in Gallus domesticus (the domestic chicken). Heredity 75, 518–529.

Sidadolog, J.H.P. 2011. Pemuliaan Sebagai Sarana Pelestarian Dan Pengembangan Ayam Lokal. Pidato pengukuhan Jabatan Guru Besar. Fakultas Peternakan. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.

Sudarmono, A. S. 2003. Pedoman Ayam Ras Petelur. Kanisius. Yogyakarta. Hal 13-15.

Suryana and A. Hasbianto. 2008. Native chicken farming in Indonesia: Problems and challenges. J. Agric.Res. 27(3): 75-83.

Syamsari. 1997. Populasi dan produktivitas Ayam kampung, Ayam Pelung dan Ayam Kedu di Desa Karacak. Skripsi. Fakultas Peternakan. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.

Stansfield, W. D. 1991. Genetika. Erlangga. Jakarta.

Sulandari S, M.S.A. Zein, T. Sartika dan S. Paryanti. 2006. Karakterisasi molekuler ayam lokal Indonesia. DIPA Biro Perencanaan dan Keuangan LIPI dan Puslit Biologi. LIPI.

Tadelle D. S. 2003. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia [Ph.D. thesis] Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University.

Traldi AB, Menten JFM, Silva CS, Rizzo PV, Pereira PWZ, Santarosa J., 2011. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?, Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 13 (4), Dec 2011, doi: 10.1590/S1516-635X2011000400011

Tullet S.G. and Burton Fiona G., 2008. Factors affecting the weight and water status of the chick at hatch. British Poultry Science. Volume 23, 1982 - Issue 4. doi: 10.1080/00071688208447969

Yi WAN, Zhicheng WANG, Xing GUO, Chendong MA, Qi FANG, Zhaoyu GENG, Xingyong CHEN and Runshen JIANG. 2018. Phenotypic characteristics of upright and pendulous comb among chicken breeds and association with growth rate and egg production. Animal Science Journal 89, 250–256.

Wilson HR. Interrelationships of egg size, chick size, posthatching growth and hatchability. World's Poultry Science Journal 1991;1(47):5-20.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1279 | views : 1122


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Buletin Peternakan (Bulletin of Animal Science) Indexed by:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.