Formulation and Characteristics of Red Palm Oil Nanostractured Lipid Carriers Prepared by Microemulsion Method and Its Application in Drinking Yoghurt

https://doi.org/10.22146/ifnp.70925

Dahlia Elianarni(1*), Sri Raharjo(2), Supriyadi Supriyadi(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristic of red palm oil nanostructured lipid carriers (RPO-NLC) made with microemulsion method. The microemulsion procedures prepared with ratio Tween 80 : Span 20 (80:20 ; 70:30), lipid : surfactant (1:3.75 ; 1:4), red palm oil : palm stearin (8:2 ; 7:3 ; 6:4). The best particle size was found at ratio 80:20, 1:4, 6:4 respectively with 24.73 ± 0.06 nm, zeta potential -7.43, turbidity 0,183% and polydispersity index at 0.06. This formulation indicated a loading capacity of 1.97%, encapsulation efficiency of 99.57%, FTIR, DSC, and stable emulsion at room temperature storage for four weeks. This best formulation was applied in drinking yoghurt with ratio nanostructured lipid carrier and yoghurt 1:18. The pH of yoghurt drink containing RPO-NLC increased from 4.13 to 4.37, while its encapsulation stability decreased from 78.45% to 49.29%. The results of sensory evaluation showed no significant difference in color, aroma, but there was significant difference on the taste of drinking yoghurt.


Keywords


red palm oil, nanostructured lipid carrier, microemulsion, yoghurt

Full Text:

PDF


References

Ajala, T. O., Abraham, A., Keck, C. M., Odeku, O. A., Elufioye, T. O., & Olopade, J. O. 2021. Shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) and Pentaclethra macrophylla oil as lipids in the formulation of Nanostructured lipid carriers. Scientific African, 13, 00965.

Azevedo, M. A., Cerqueira, M. A., Fuciños, P., Silva, B. F. B., Teixeira, J. A., & Pastrana, L. 2021. Rhamnolipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers: Effect of lipid phase on physicochemical properties and stability. Food Chemistry, 344. 128670.

Baba, W. N., Jan, K., Punoo, H. A., Wani, T. A., Dar, M. M., & Masoodi, F. A. 2018. Techno-functional properties of yoghurts fortified with walnut and flaxseed oil emulsions in guar gum. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 92, 242–249.

Babazadeh, A., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Hamishehkar, H. 2016. Novel nanostructured lipid carrier as a promising food-grade delivery system for ruitin. Journal of functional food. 26. 167 – 175.

Bashiri, S., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Ayaseh, A., Dehghannya, J., & Ehsani, A. 2020. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-coated nanostructured lipid carriers (CH-NLC) containing cinnamon essential oil for enriching milk and antioxidant activity. Lwt, 119, 108836.

Cazzonelli, C. I., 2011. Carotenoids in nature: insights from plants and beyond. Function Plant Biology. 38 (11). 833-847

Chaudhari, V. S., Murty, U. S., & Banerjee, S. 2021. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a strategy for encapsulation of active plant constituents: Formulation and in vitro physicochemical characterizations. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 235, 105037.

Cheow, W.S., Hadinoto, K., 2011. Factors affecting drug encapsulation and stability of lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 85, 214–220.

D’Onofre Couto, B., Novaes da Costa, R., Castro Laurindo, W., Moraes da Silva, H., Rocha da Silva, C., Sélia dos Reis Coimbra, J., Barbosa Mageste, A., de Cássia Dias, S., & José Boggione Santos, I. 2021. Characterization, techno-functional properties, and encapsulation efficiency of self-assembled β-lactoglobulin nanostructures. Food Chemistry, 356. 129719.

Das, S., Ghosh, S., De, A. K., Bera, T. 2017. Oral delivery of ursolic acid loaded nanostructured lipid carrier coated with chitosan oligosaccharide: development, characterization, in vitro and in vivo assessment for the therapy of leishmaniasis. International journal of biological macromolecules. 102. 996 – 1008.

de Campo, C., Queiroz Assis, R., Marques da Silva, M., Haas Costa, T. M., Paese, K., Stanisçuaski Guterres, S., de Oliveira Rios, A., & Hickmann Flôres, S. 2019. Incorporation of zeaxanthin nanoparticles in yogurt: Influence on physicochemical properties, carotenoid stability and sensory analysis. Food Chemistry. 301. 125230.

De Oliveira, G. M., Ribeiro, A. P. B., Kieckbutsch, T. G. 2015. Hard fat improve technological properties of palm oil for application in fat-based products. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 63. 1155-1162

Eid, R. K., Ashour, D. S., Essa, E. A., El Maghraby, G. M., & Arafa, M. F. 2020. Chitosan coated nanostructured lipid carriers for enhanced in vivo efficacy of albendazole against Trichinella spiralis. Carbohydrate Polymers, 232, 115826.

Fletcher, P. D. I., and Suhling, K. 1998. Interaction between weakly charged oil in water microemulsion droplets. Langmuir. 14. 4065 – 4069.

Houacine, C., Adams, D., & Singh, K. K. 2020. Impact of liquid lipid on development and stability of trimyristin nanostructured lipid carriers for oral delivery of resveratrol. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 316, 113734.

Huang, W., Dou, H., Wu, H., Sun, Z., Wang, H., Huang, L. 2017. Preparation and characterization of nobiletin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Journal of nanomaterials. 215. 1 – 12.

Huang, Z., Guo, B., Deng, C., Tang, C., Liu, C., & Hu, X. 2021. Fabrication and characterization of the W/O/W multiple emulsion through oleogelation of oil. Food Chemistry, 358, 129856.

Jomova, K., Valko, M. 2013. Health protective effects of carotenoids and their interactions with other biological antioxidants. Europe Journal Medicine Chemistry. 102-110

Karimi Khorrami, N., Radi, M., Amiri, S., & McClements, D. J. 2021. Fabrication and characterization of alginate-based films functionalized with nanostructured lipid carriers. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 182, 373–384.

Khan, A. S., ud Din, F., Ali, Z., Bibi, M., Zahid, F., Zeb, A., Mujeeb-ur-Rehman, & Khan, G. M. 2021. Development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of miltefosine loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 593, 120109.

Khosa, A., Reddi, S., Saha, R. N. 2018. Nanostructured lipid carrier for site-specific drug delivery. Journal of Biomedicine Pharmacoter. 103. 598 – 613

Krambeck, K., Silva, V., Silva, R., Fernandes, C., Cagide, F., Borges, F., Santos, D., Otero-Espinar, F., Lobo, J. M. S., & Amaral, M. H. 2021. Design and characterization of Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and Nanostructured lipid carrier-based hydrogels containing Passiflora edulis seeds oil. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 600, 120444.

Lawless, H. T., and Hildegarde, H. 2010. Sensory evaluation of food – principle and practices. Second edition. Springer.

Lin, C. H., Chen, C. H., Lin, Z. C., Fang, J. Y. 2017. Recent advances in oral delivery of drugs and bioactive natural product using solid lipid nanoparticles as the carriers. Review article. Journal of food and drug analysis. 25. 219 – 234

Liu, C., Meng, Z., Chai, X., Liang, X., Piatko, M., Campbell, S., and Liu, Y. 2019. Comparative analysis of graded blends of palm kernel oil, palm kernel sterain, and palm stearin. Journal of Food Chemistry. 286. 636 – 643.

Liu, W., Wang, J., McClements, D. J., & Zou, L. 2018. Encapsulation of β-carotene-loaded oil droplets in caseinate/alginate microparticles: Enhancement of carotenoid stability and bioaccessibility. Journal of Functional Foods, 40, 527–535.

Makoni, P. A., Kasongo, K. W., & Walker, R. B. 2019. Short-term stability testing of efavirenz-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) dispersions. Pharmaceutics, 11(8).11080397.

Maretti, E., Leo, E., Rustichelli, C., Truzzi, E., Siligardi, C., & Iannuccelli, V. 2021. In vivo β-carotene skin permeation modulated by Nanostructured Lipid Carriers. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 597, 120322.

Mba, O.I., Dumont, M. J., Ngadi, M., 2015. Palm oil: processing, characterization and utilization in the food industry. A review. Food Bioscience. 10. 26-41

Mohammadi-Gouraji, E., Soleimanian-Zad, S., & Ghiaci, M. 2019. Phycocyanin-enriched yogurt and its antibacterial and physicochemical properties during 21 days of storage. Lwt, 102, 230–236.

Montenegro, L., Lai, F., Offerta, A., Sarpietro, M. G., Micicche, L., Maccioni, A. M., Valenti, D., Fadda, A. M. 2016. From nanoemulsion to nanostructured lipid carrier: A relevant development in dermal delivery of drugs and cosmetics. Journal of drug delivery science and technology. 32. 100 – 112.

Nahr, F. K., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Hamishehkar, H., Kafil, H. S. 2018. Food grade nanostructured lipid carrier for cardamom essential oil: preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity. Journal of functional food. 40. 1 – 8

Pan, Y., Rohan, V. T., Nitin, N. 2016. Distribution of a model bioactive within solid lipid nanoparticle and nanostructured lipid carriers influences its loading efficiency and oxidative stability. International journal of pharmaceutics. 511. 322 – 330.

Pardeike, J., Weber, S., Haber, T., Wagner, J., Zarfl, H. P., Plank, H., Zimmer, A. 2011. Development of an itraconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation for pulmonary application. International journal of pharmaceutics. 419. 329 – 338.

Qiu, L., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A. S., & Chang, L. 2021. Effect of edible rose (Rosa rugosa cv. Plena) flower extract addition on the physicochemical, rheological, functional and sensory properties of set-type yogurt. Food Bioscience, 43.101249

Rajput, A. P., & Butani, S. B. 2019. Resveratrol anchored nanostructured lipid carrier loaded in situ gel via nasal route: Formulation, optimization and in vivo characterization. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 51, 214–223.

Raju, M., Kunde, S. S., Auti, S. T., Kulkarni, Y. A., & Wairkar, S. 2021. Berberine loaded nanostructured lipid carrier for Alzheimer’s disease: Design, statistical optimization and enhanced in vivo performance. Life Sciences, 285, 119990.

Ruiz-Zola, M. A., Rodriguez-Concepcion, M. Carotenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis: a colorful pathway. The Arabidopsis Book/American Society of Plant Biologists. 10

Sakellari, G. I., Zafeiri, I., Batchelor, H., & Spyropoulos, F. 2021. Formulation design, production and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for the encapsulation of a model hydrophobic active. Food Hydrocolloids for Health, 1, 100024.

Salama, H. H., El-Sayed, H. S., Kholif, A. M. M., & Edris, A. E. 2021. Essential oils nanoemulsion for the flavoring of functional stirred yogurt: Manufacturing, physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial investigation. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences.10.001

Salvi, V. R., & Pawar, P. 2019. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology Nanostructured lipid carriers ( NLC ) system : A novel drug targeting carrier. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 51(990), 255–267

Shamsara, O., Muhidinov, Z. K., Jafari, S. M., Bobokalonov, J., Jonmurodov, A., Taghvaei, M. 2015. Effect of ultrasonication, pH, and heating on stability of apricot gum lactoglobulin two layer nanoemulsion. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 81. 1019 – 1025.

Shevalkar, G., and Vavia, P. 2019. Solidified nanostructured lipid carrier (S-NLC) for enhancing the oral bioavailability of ezetimibe. Journal of drug delivery science and technology. 53. 101211

Sohrabi, S., Keshavarz Moraveji, M., & Iranshahi, D. 2021. Morphological and structural insights into high aspect ratio lauric acid/TiO2 nanowires: A low-temperature synthesis. Ceramics International, 47(7), 9424–9436.

Suhendra, L., Raharjo, S, Pudji, H., Hidayat, C. 2012. Formulasi dan stabilitas mikroemulsi o/w sebagai pembawa fucoxanthin. Agritech. 32. 230-239

Umeyor, C. E., Okoye, I., Uronnachi, E., Okeke, T., Kenechukwu, F., & Attama, A. 2021. Repositioning miconazole nitrate for malaria: Formulation of sustained release nanostructured lipid carriers, structure characterization and in vivo antimalarial evaluation. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 61, 102125.

Van Nieuwenhove, C. P., Moyano, A., Castro-Gómez, P., Fontecha, J., Sáez, G., Zárate, G., & Pizarro, P. L. 2019. Comparative study of pomegranate and jacaranda seeds as functional components for the conjugated linolenic acid enrichment of yogurt. Lwt, 111, 401–407.

Wang, X., Hongyan, L., Fangqin, W., Guixue, X., Hongjun, L., Xiaojie, C., Ming, K., Ya, L., Chao, F., Xiguang, C., and Ying, W. 2017. Frontiers of material science. 11. 66 – 74.

Yang, Y., Marshall-Breton, C., Leser, M. E., Sher, A. A., McClements, D. J. 2012. Fabrication of ultrafine edible emulsions: comparison of high-energy and low-energy homogenization method. Food hydrocolloids. 29. 398 – 406.

Zedan, H., Hosseini, S. M., & Mohammadi, A. 2021. The effect of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil and high molecular weight Chitosan on sensory properties and shelf life of yogurt. Lwt, 147, 111613.

Zhong, J., Yang, R., Cao, X., Liu, X., & Qin, X. 2018. Improved Physicochemical Properties of Yogurt Fortified with Fish Oil/γ-Oryzanol by Nanoemulsion Technology. Molecules, 23(1), 56.

Zhu, J., Pan, Z., Lanla, L., Qi, S, feiwei, C. 2015. Preparation and characterization of novel nanocarriers containing krill oil for food application. Journal of functional food. 19. 902 -912.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ifnp.70925

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1811 | views : 839

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress (print ISSN 0854-6177, online ISSN 2597-9388) is published by the Indonesian Association of Food Technologist in collaboration with Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Journal of Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress have been indexed by: 

   

 

This works is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.