The Toxicity and Antibacterial Properties of Calamus ornatus Bl. Rattan Fruit

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.46416

Heriad Daud Salusu(1*), Ernita Obeth(2), Abdul Rasyid Zarta(3), Eva Nurmarini(4), Hamka Nurkaya(5), Irawan Wijaya Kusuma(6), Enos Tangke Arung(7)

(1) Department of Agriculture Technology, Agricultural Polytechnic of Samarinda, Kampus Gunung Panjang, Jl. Samratulangi, Samarinda
(2) Department of Agriculture Technology, Agricultural Polytechnic of Samarinda, Kampus Gunung Panjang, Jl. Samratulangi, Samarinda
(3) Department of Agriculture Technology, Agricultural Polytechnic of Samarinda, Kampus Gunung Panjang, Jl. Samratulangi, Samarinda
(4) Department of Agriculture Technology, Agricultural Polytechnic of Samarinda, Kampus Gunung Panjang, Jl. Samratulangi, Samarinda
(5) Department of Agriculture Technology, Agricultural Polytechnic of Samarinda, Kampus Gunung Panjang, Jl. Samratulangi, Samarinda
(6) Faculty of Forestry, Mulawarman University, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Jl. Penajam, Samarinda
(7) Faculty of Forestry, Mulawarman University, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Jl. Penajam, Samarinda
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Calamus ornatus Bl., locally known as rotan mantang or rotan seuti is one of the commercial rattan species growing in the forests of East Borneo. Its fruit is edible, like the fruits of other species of rattan, and it has been used by the local people as traditional medicine to treat stomachache or toothache. Until recently, there has not been any study investigating the benefits of the fruit for medicinal or other purposes. This research aimed to discover the bio-activity potentials of Calamus ornatus Bl. fruits by identifying its toxicity level and antibacterial potentials. The parts of the fruit (pericarp, flesh, and seed) were extracted using ethanol as solvent to extract samples. The toxicity was analyzed by using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method while the antibacterial activity was tested using a well diffusion method. Low toxicity was found in the flesh, whereas the pericarp and the seed were non-toxic. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was found in the pericarp and the seed, while antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans was found in the pericarp and the flesh.


Keywords


Antibacterial; Calamus ornatus; fruit; toxicity

Full Text:

PDF


References

Ahmed, Z. U., Bithi, S. S., Minhozur, Khan, M. R., Hossain, Md. M., Sharmin, S. & Roni, S. R. (2014). Phytochemical screening, antioxdiant and cytotoxic activity of fruit extract of Calamus tenuis Roxb. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 2(8), 645–650. http://doi.org/10.12980/JCLM.2.201414D74

Arung, E. T., Kusuma, I. W., Christy, E. O., Shimizu, K., & Kondo, R. (2009). Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for anti melanogenesis. J. Nat. Med., 63(4), 473–480. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-009-0351-7

Djeussi, D. E., Noumedem, J. A. K., Seukep, J. A., Fankam, A. G., Voukeng, I. K., Simplice, B., Tankeo, S. B., Nkuete, A. & Kuete, V. (2013). Antibacterial Activities of Selected Edible Plants Extracts against Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13, 164–170. http://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-164

Ghosal M. & Mandal, P. (2013). In-vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Calamus erectus Roxb. fruit: a wild plant of Darjeeling Himalaya. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 4(2), 671–684.

Guil-Guerrero, J. L., Ramos, L., Moreno, C., Zúñiga-Paredes, J. C., Carlosama-Yepez, M. & Ruales, P. (2016). Antimicrobial activity of plant-food by-products: a review focusing on the tropics. Livestock Science, 189, 32–49. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2016.04.021

Hamidi, M. R., Jovanova, B. & Panovska T. K. (2014). Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) model. Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 60(1), 9–18.

Kuspradini, H., Rosiarto, A. M., Putri, A. S. & Kusuma, I. W. (2016). Antioxidant and toxicity properties of anthocyanin extracted from red flower of four tropical shrubs. Nusantara Bioscience, 8, 135–140.

Maitera, O. N., Louis, H., Oyebanji, O. O. & Anumah, A. O. (2018). Investigation of tannin content in Diospyros mespiliformis extract using various extraction solvents. Journal of Analytical & Pharmaceutical Research, 7(1), 55–59. http://doi.org/10.15406/japlr.2018.07.00200

Meyer, B. N.  Ferrigni, N. R., Putnam, J. E., Jacobsen, L. B., Nicholas, D. E. & McLaughin, J. L. (1982). Brine shrimp: a convenient general biossay for active plant constituents. Planta Medica, 45, 4–31.

Mungenge, C., Zimudzi, C., Zimba, M. & Nhiwatiwa, T. (2014). Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and insecticidal activity of the fish poison plant Synaptolepis alternifolia oliv. (Thymelaeaceae). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(5), 15–19.

Rahman, F. A., Haniastuti, T. & Utami, T. W. (2017). Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of soursop leaf (Annona muricata L.) on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. Indonesian Dentistry Magazine, 3(1), 1–7.

Salusu, H. D., Aryani, F., Zarta, A. R., Budarso, E., Kusuma, I. W. & Arung, E. T. (2018). Antioxidant assay of the ethanolic extract of three species of rattan fruits using DPPH method.  J. Trop. Pharm. Chem., 4(4), 154–162. http://doi.org/10.25026/jtpc.v4i4.170

Sanusi, D. (2012). Rattan, Wilderness of Indonesia. Surabaya: Brilian Internasional.

Sautron, C. & Cock, I. E. (2014). Antimicrobial activity and toxicity of Syzygium australe and Syzygium leuhmannii fruit extracts. Pharmacognosy Communications, 4(1), 53–60. http://doi.org/10.5530/pc.2014.1.8

Shetty, S. B., Mahin-Syed-Ismail, P., Varghese, S., Thomas-George, B., Thajuraj, P. K., Baby, D., Haleem, S., Sreedhar, S. & Devang-Divakar, D. (2016). Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: an in vitro study. J Clin Exp Dent, 8(1), e70–7. http://doi.org/10.4317/jced.52493



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.46416

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 82 | views : 66

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 agriTECH

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Agritech has been Indexed by:


Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


website statisticsView My Stats