Efektivitas Tutupan Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum purpureum) dalam Mitigasi Erosi Tanah oleh Air Hujan

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.50290

Muhammad Chrisna Satriagasa(1*), Hatma Suryatmojo(2)

(1) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Aktivitas manusia yang intensif terhadap lahan menyebabkan erosi dipercepat. Dampaknya yaitu tanah dari wilayah hulu terpindahkan ke wilayah hilir menyebabkan dampak serius. Tanaman penutup tanah memiliki peranan penting dalam pengurangan erosi tanah dengan cara mengurangi energi kinetik air. Penelitian ini bertujuan menginvestigasi dan menganalisis rumput gajah (Pennisetum purpureum) dalam mengurangi limpasan permukaan dan erosi tanah. Penelitian ini bersifat ekperimental dengan menggunakan simulator hujan. Simulator hujan yang digunakan memiliki ukuran 200 cm (T) x 120 cm (P) x 120 cm (L) dan memiliki 10 nozzle, dapat mensimulasikan intensitas hujan dan kemiringan lereng. Parameter yang digunakan dalam simulasi ini yaitu intensitas hujan sebesar 54,59 mm/jam, kemiringan lereng sejumlah 5 kelas. Intensitas hujan dipilih dengan pertimbangan simulasi pada intensitas hujan sangat lebat serta keterbatasan alat dalam meproduksi variasi intensitas hujan. Plot uji berukuran 80 cm (P) x 50 cm (L) x 30 cm (T) sebanyak 10 plot yang terdiri dari 2 jenis yaitu dengan rumput dan tanpa rumput. Pengukuran setiap plot dilakukan selama 60 menit dan dilakukan pengambilan data setiap 2 menit. Analisis kuantitatif dilakukan pada limpasan permukaan dan sedimentasi, sedangkan analisis kualitatif dilakukan terhadap bentukan erosi. Temuan dari penelitian ini yaitu tutupan rumput gajah mampu mengurangi akumulasi limpasan permukaan hingga lahan dengan lereng miring (15-25%). Tutupan rumput dapat mengurangi erosi sebesar 98,85% yang didekati menggunakan parameter turbidity. Tanah di lokasi kajian memiliki karakteristik fisik yang rentan terhadap erosi, sehingga tutupan lahan khususnya rumput gajah sangat berperan dalam mengurangi potensi bahaya erosi.

Keywords


Erosion; elephant grass; rainfall simulator; sedimentation; surface runoff



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.50290

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