Efek Antioksidatif dan Akseptabilitas Bakso Daging Ayam Ras dengan Penambahan Gel Lidah Buaya

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.31850

Chatarina Wariyah(1*), Riyanto Riyanto(2)

(1) Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Agroindustri, Universitas Mercu Buana Yogyakarta, Jl. Wates Km 10, Yogyakarta 55753
(2) Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Agroindustri, Universitas Mercu Buana Yogyakarta, Jl. Wates Km 10, Yogyakarta 55753
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Currently, the consumption of broiler-chicken meat increases up to 3.7510 kg/cap/year. This condition is due to the increasing of population growth and food businesses which use chicken meat. On the other hand, the chicken meat contains of high fat, thus easily oxidized and resulted in free radicals and off- flavor. Chicken meat is widely used as meatball that is processed through the stage of meat-milling and boiling which triggers fat oxidation. Therefore, an antioxidant is needed to inhibit oxidation. Aloevera contains flavonoid compounds that could scavange free radicals. The objective of this research was to optimize the addition of aloe vera gel in the chicken meatball to obtain high antioxidant effect and acceptable product. Considering its high water content (> 98%), in this study aloe vera gel was added as an ice-substitution in the making of meatball. The meatballs were made by mixing of 250 g chicken meat with 125 g tapioca for each sample, seasoning (salt, pepper, garlic), and added ice with water/aloe vera gel  ratio (g/g) of 100/0; 85/15; 70/30; 55/45 and 40/60. The doughs were molded in ball-shape then boiled at 90 oC for 10 minutes. The meatballs were subjected to analysis of moisture content, the ability to scavenge of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical or radical scavenging activity (RSA), acid, peroxide and thyobarbituric acid (TBA) number,  physical properties including water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss, and texture (softness, chewiness and deformation) as well as  acceptability by hedonic test. The results showed that the highest acceptability and antioxidative activity of meatballs was obtained in meatball with the ratio of water/gel between 55/45- 40/60 (g/g). This aforementioned meatball had softer texture and likely chewiness. The percentage of the WHC and cooking loss were not significantly different, but it had high RSA and lowest value of acid, peroxide and TBA numbers.

 

ABSTRAK

Saat ini konsumsi daging ayam ras pedaging meningkat hingga mencapai 3,7510 kg/kap/tahun. Hal ini disebabkan antara lain oleh meningkatnya jumlah penduduk dan usaha di sektor pangan yang menggunakan daging ayam ras. Disisi lain, daging ayam ras mengandung lemak cukup tinggi, sehingga mudah teroksidasi menghasilkan radikal bebas dan penurunan flavor. Daging ayam ras banyak digunakan sebagai bakso yang diolah melalui proses penggilingan daging dan perebusan, sehingga dapat memicu terjadinya oksidasi lemak. Oleh sebab itu, diperlukan antioksidan untuk menghambat oksidasi. Aloe vera diketahui mengandung senyawa flavonoid yang dapat menangkal radikal bebas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan optimasi penambahan gel lidah buaya pada pembuatan bakso daging ayam ras untuk menghasilkan bakso dengan efek antioksidatif tinggi dan disukai. Pada penelitian ini gel lidah buaya ditambahkan untuk mensubtitusi es batu yang digunakan pada pembuatan bakso, mengingat kandungan air gel tinggi (> 98%). Pembuatan bakso untuk setiap 250 g daging ayam ditambah 125 g tapioka, bumbu (garam, merica, bubuk bawang putih) dan es batu yang dibuat dengan variasi rasio air/gel lidah buaya (g/g): 100/0; 85/15; 70/30; 55/45 dan 40/60. Bahan dicampur menjadi adonan dan dibuat bola-bakso, selanjutnya direbus pada suhu 90 oC selama 10 menit. Analisis yang dilakukan adalah kadar air, kemampuan menangkap radikal DPPH, angka asam, peroksida dan TBA (thyobarbituric acid); sifat fisik: water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss, tekstur (kelunakan, kekenyalan dan deformasi) dan akseptabilitas bakso ditentukan secara inderawi dengan Hedonic Test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bakso dengan akseptabilitas dan aktivitas antioksidasi tinggi dibuat dengan es batu dengan rasio air/gel lidah buaya 55/45-40/60 (g/g).  Bakso tersebut lebih lunak dan kekenyalannya disukai. Persentase WHC dan cooking loss tidak berbeda nyata, nilai RSA tinggi, sedangkan angka asam, peroksida dan TBA paling rendah.


Keywords


Acceptability; aloe vera; antioxidant; meatball

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.31850

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