Simulating Streamflow Through The SWAT Model in The Keduang Sub-Watershed, Wonogiri Regency, Indonesia

Andrianto Ansari(1*), Tasuku Kato(2), Atiqotun Fitriah(3)

(1) Graduate School of Agriculture, Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Sawaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan
(2) Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Sawaicho, Fuchu,Tokyo, Japan
(3) United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Sawaicho, Fuchu, Japan
(*) Corresponding Author


Water resource modelling has been used to analyze the sustainability of the watershed affected by human activity and natural disasters. The objective of this research was to evaluate the SWAT model and its applicability in the Keduang Sub-Watershed for streamflow prediction, which is part of Bengawan Solo Watershed. A SWAT integrated with Geographic Information Systems (ArcGIS, version 10.4.1) was used to simulate Keduang Sub-Watershed streamflow for the period from 2008 to 2017. Model calibration and validation were performed for monthly and daily periods using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting 2 (SUFI-2) within SWAT-CUP using daily observed streamflow data at the catchment outlet. The results during calibration and validation periods showed that the value of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), the coefficient of determination (R2), Percent Bias (PBIAS) and Root Mean Square (RSR) had different values for daily and monthly simulation. The calibration and validation outputs for daily and monthly simulation showed a good model performance for discharges. In the daily simulation, the value of NSE, R2, PBIAS and RSR were 0.57; 0.58; -3.4 and 0.67 for calibration periods, whereas in the validation period the values of NSE, R2, PBIAS and RSR were 0.50; 0.51; -10.7 and 0.65, respectively. The monthly simulation had better results than the daily simulation where the value of NSE, R2, PBIAS, RSR were 0.79; 0.81; -6.2 and 0.54 for calibration periods, as well as 0.73; 0.69;-1.9 and 0.71 for validation periods, respectively. Those results indicated that the SWAT model was acceptable for Keduang watershed simulation based on the model performance which was higher than the minimum standard acceptance.


Discharges; Keduang Sub-Watershed; SUFI-2; SWAT-CUP; SWAT model

Full Text:



Abbaspour, K. C. (2007). User Manual for SWAT-CUP, SWAT Calibration, and Uncertainty Analysis Programs. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. Eawag. Dubendorf. Switzerland.

Abbaspour, K. C., Yang, J., Maximov, I., Siber, R., Bogner, K., Mieleitner, J., Zobrist, J. & Srinivasan, R. (2007). Modeling hydrology and water quality in the pre-alpine/alpine Thur watershed using SWAT. Journal of Hydrology, 333: 413-430.

Ang, Raksmey & Oeurng, C. (2018) simulating streamflow in ungauged catchment of tonlesap lake basin in cambodia using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. Water Science (32): 89-101.

Arnold, J. G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R. S. & Williams, J. R. (1998). Large area hydrologic modelling and assessment – part 1.: model development. Journal of The American Water Resources Association, 34 (1), 73-89.

Arnold, J. G., Allen, P. M. & Bernhardt, G. (1993). A comprehensive surface-groundwater flow model. Journal of Hydrology, 142 (1-4): 47-69.

Arnold, J. G., Kiniry, J. R., Srinivasan, R., Williams, J. R., Haney, E. B. & Neitsch, S. L. (2011). Soil and Water Assessment Tool Input-Output File Documentation. Soil and Water Research Laboratory. Agricultural Research Service, Grassland, 808 East Black Land Road, Temple, Texas.

BIG. (2000), Peta Rupa Bumi Indonesia, BIG, Jakarta.

Beven, K. & Binley, A. (1992). The future of distributed models: model calibration and uncertainty prediction. Hydrological Process, 6(3), 279–298.

Chen, Xi, Alizad, K., Wang, D. & Hagen, S. (2014). Climate change impact on runoff and sediment loads to the apalachicola river at seasonal and event scales. Journal of Coastal Research, SI(68), 35.

Duan, Q., Sorooshian, S. & Gupta, V.K. (1992). Effective and efficient global optimization for conceptual rainfall-runoff models. Water Resour. Res., 28 (4), 1015–1031.

Farr, T. G. & Kobrick, M. (2000). Shuttle radar topography mission produces a wealth of data: Eos, v. 81, no. 48, p. 583-585.

Farr, T. G., Rosen, P. A., Caro, E., Crippen, R., Duren, R., Hensley, S., Kobrick, M., Paller, M., Rodriguez, E., Roth, L., Seal, D., Shaffer, S., Shimada, J., Umland, J., Werner, M., Oskin, M., Burbank, D. & Alsdorf, D. E. (2007). The shuttle radar topography mission: Reviews of Geophysics, v. 45, no. 2, RG2004, at

Gupta, H. V., Sorooshian, S. &  Yapo, P. O. (1999). Status of automatic calibration for hydrologic models: comparison with multilevel expert calibration. J. Hydrol. Eng., 4(2), 135–143.

Hallouz, Faiza., Meddi, Mohamed, Mahe, Gil, Alirahmani, Salaheddine, Keddar & Abdelkader. (2018). Modelling of discharge and sediment transport through the swat model in the basin of Harraza (Nortwest of Algeria). Water Science, 32 (1), 79-88.

Kobrick, M. (2006), On the toes of giants—How SRTM was born: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 72, no. 3, p. 206-210.

JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency). (2007). Report on The Study on Countermeasures for Sedimentation in The Wonogiri Multipurpose DAM Reservoir in The Republic of Indonesia. Ministry Of Public Works The Republic of Indonesia.

Junaidi, E., Tarigan & Surya, D. (2012). Penggunaan model hidrologi swat (soil and water assesment tool) dalam pengelolaan DAS cisadane. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, 9(2).

Moriasi, D .N., Arnold, J. G., Van Liew, M. W., Bingner, R. L., Harmel, R. D. & Veith, T. L. (2007). Model evaluation guidelines for systematic quantification of accuracy in watershed simulations. Trans. ASABE, 50 (3), 885–900. Doi: 10.13031/2013.23153

Neitsch, S. L., Arnold, J. G., Kiniry, J. R., Williams, J. R. & King, K. W. (2005). Soil and water assessment tool theoretical documentation—version 2005. In: Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service. US Department of Agriculture, Temple.

Neitsch, S. L., Arnold, J. G., Kiniry, J. R. & Williams, J. R. (2001). Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Documentation (Version 2000) [online]. Agricultural Research Service, and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station., pp.506 pp (Available from [accessed 1.31.19].).

Nugroho, P., Priyana, Y. & Haryadi, S. (2015). Prediction of The Erosion and Sedimentation Rate using SWAT Model in Keduang Sub-Watershed Wonogiri Regency. International Conference on Science, Technology, and Humanity. Muhammadiyah University Press. Surakarta.

Priyanto, E. (2018). SWAT for Land Vulnerability Assessment in Wonogiri Dam Catchment. Master Thesis. Flinders University.

Rau, M. I., Pandjaitan, N. & Sapei, A. (2015). Analisis debit sungai dengan menggunakan model SWAT pada DAS Cipasuruan, Banten. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian, 3(2).

Rosen, P. A. (2000). Synthetic aperture radar interferometry: Proceedings of the IEEE, v. 88, no. 3, p. 333-380.

Saleh, D. K., Kratzer, C. R., Green, C. H. & Evans, D. G. (2009). Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate runoff in Mustang Creek Basin, California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009– 5031, 28 p.

Sutrisno, J. (2011). Valuasi Ekonomi Konversi Lahan Pertanian ke Non Pertanian di Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Waduk Wonogiri. Doctoral thesis, Bogor Agricultural University.

Sulaeman, D. (2016). Simulasi Teknik Konservasi Tanah dan air dnegan Metode Vegetatif dan Sipil Tekniks Menggunakan  Model SWAT. Bogor. Bogor Agricultural University.

Van Griensven, A. & Meixner, T. (2007). Methods to quantify and identify the sources of uncertainty for river basin water quality models. Journal of Water Sciences Technology, 53(1), 51-59. Doi: 10.2166/wst.2006.007

Wuryanta, A. & Susanti, D. P. (2015). Analisis spasial tekanan penduduk terhadap lahan pertanian di sub-das Keduang, Kabupaten Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah. Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan, 12(3).


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 635 | views : 812


Copyright (c) 2019 agriTECH

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

agriTECH has been Indexed by:

agriTECH (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.

website statisticsView My Stats