Aktivitas Antioksidan Makaroni Beras Hitam dan Kacang-Kacangan Berpigmen Metode Cold Extrusion

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.56064

Rinda Kusumawati(1), Nurheni Sri Palupi(2*), Slamet Budijanto(3)

(1) Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Dramaga, Dramaga, Kabupaten Bogor 16680, Jawa Barat
(2) Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Dramaga, Dramaga, Kabupaten Bogor 16680, Jawa Barat
(3) Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Dramaga, Dramaga, Kabupaten Bogor 16680, Jawa Barat
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi antioksidan dari makaroni beras hitam dan kacang-kacangan berpigmen sebagai pangan fungsional. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 2 ulangan. Parameter yang dianalisis meliputi total fenolik, total flavonoid, aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH, aktivitas antioksidan metode FRAP, kualitas masak makaroni, dan uji organoleptik. Data hasil diolah menggunakan analysis of variance (ANOVA) dengan taraf signifikansi 5%, apabila terdapat perbedaan akan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Hasil uji organoleptik berupa uji hedonik diolah menggunakan uji Kruskal-Wallis, apabila terdapat perbedaan akan dilanjutkan dengan uji Mann-Whitney. Data ditampilkan dalam bentuk rata-rata ± standar deviasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produk makaroni setelah dilakukan proses perebusan menjadi makaroni matang, terjadi penurunan total fenolik, total flavonoid, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode FRAP dari masing-masing makaroni kombinasi. Sedangkan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH dari makaroni kombinasi beras hitam dengan kacang merah, kacang hijau, atau kacang tolo menunjukkan peningkatan setelah perebusan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian masing-masing makaroni kombinasi memiliki karakteristik kualitas masak yang berbeda dilihat dari parameter pengembangan volume, peningkatan berat, dan cooking loss. Berdasarkan uji organoleptik makaroni matang kombinasi beras hitam dengan kacang merah, kacang hijau, atau kacang tolo tidak berbeda secara signifikan ditinjau dari parameter warna, kelembaban, tingkat kekerasan, kekenyalan, kelembutan di mulut, rasa, dan penerimaan keseluruhan.


Keywords


Antioksidan; beras hitam; makaroni; kacang berpigmen; Antioxidant; black rice, macaroni, pigmented beans

Full Text:

PDF


References

Aisyah, Y., Rasdiansyah, & Muhaimin. (2015). Pengaruh pemanasan terhadap aktivitas antioksidan pada beberapa jenis sayuran. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia, 6(2), 29–32. https://doi.org/10.17969/jtipi.v6i2.2063

Apak, R., Güçlü, K., Demirata, B., Özyürek, M., Çelik, S. E., Bektaşoǧlu, B., Berker, K. I., Özyurt, D. (2007). Comparative evaluation of various total antioxidant capacity assays applied to phenolic compounds with the CUPRAC assay. Molecules, 12(7), 1496–1547. https://doi.org/10.3390/12071496

Arinanti, M. (2018). Potensi senyawa antioksidan alami pada berbagai jenis kacang. Ilmu Gizi Indonesia, 01(02), 134–143.

Baba, S. A., & Malik, S. A. (2015). Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of a root extract of Arisaema jacquemontii Blume. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 9, 449–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2014.11.001

Chahardehi, A. M., Ibrahim, D., & Sulaiman, S. F. (2010). Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and toxicity test of Pilea microphylla. International Journal of Microbiology, 2010, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/826830

Chen, H. H., Chang, H. C., Chen, Y. K., Hung, C. L., Lin, S. Y., & Chen, Y. S. (2016). An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma. Food Chemistry, 191, 120–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.083

Chutipanyaporn, P., Kruawan, K., & Chupeerach, C. (2014). The effect of cooking process on antioxidant activities and total phenolic compounds of five colored beans. Food and Applied Bioscience Journal, 2(3), 183–191.

Cömert, E. D., Mogol, B. A., & Gökmen, V. (2020). Relationship between color and antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables. Current Research in Food Science, 2, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2019.11.001

Dhianawaty, D., & Ruslin. (2015). Kandungan total polifenol dan aktivitas antioksidan dari ekstrak metanol akar Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv. (alang-alang). Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, 47(1), 60–64. https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v47n1.398

Esteves, T. C. F., Felberg, I., Calado, V. M. A., & Panizzi, M. C. C.-. (2017). Effect of black soymilk processing conditions on anthocyanins content. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 11(2), 56–60. https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-1102015660

Jun, H.-I., Song, G.-S., Yang, E.-I., Youn, Y., & Kim, Y.-S. (2012). Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of pigmented rice bran extracts. Journal of Food Science, 77(7), C759–C764. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02763.x

Khoo, H. E., Azlan, A., Tang, S. T., & Lim, S. M. (2017). Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits. Food and Nutrition Research, 61(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/16546628.2017.1361779

Kumari P., V., & Sangeetha, N. (2013). Effect of processing techniques on the physical and nutritional properties of extruded product using multicereal composite mix. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 5(4), 8–16.

Maryam, S., Baits, M., & Nadia, A. (2016). Pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak etanol daun kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) menggunakan metode FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power). Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia, 2(2), 115–118. https://doi.org/10.33096/jffi.v2i2.181

Mastura Y., H. M., Hasnah H., H., & Dang T.N., D. (2017). Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of beans: Organic vs inorganic. International Food Research Journal, 24(2), 510–517.

Noorlaila, A., Suhadah, A. N., Noriham, N., & Hassan, N. H. (2018). Total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activities of pigmented black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) subjected to soaking and boiling. Jurnal Teknologi, 80(3), 137–143. https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v80.11135

Nurjanah, N., Jacoeb, A. M., Asmara, D. A., & Hidayat, T. (2019). Phenol component of fresh and boiled sea grapes (Caulerpa sp.) from Tual, Maluku. Food ScienTech Journal, 1(1), 31–39. https://doi.org/10.33512/fsj.v1i1.6244

Ombra, M. N., D’Acierno, A., Nazzaro, F., Riccardi, R., Spigno, P., Zaccardelli, M., Pane, C., Maione, M., Fratianni, F. (2016). Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the extracts of twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) endemic ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after cooking. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2016, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1398298

Özyurt, G., Uslu, L., Yuvka, I., Gökdoğan, S., Atci, G., Ak, B., & Işik, O. (2015). Evaluation of the cooking quality characteristics of pasta enriched with spirulina platensis. Journal of Food Quality, 38(4), 268–272. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfq.12142

Preti, R., Rapa, M., & Vinci, G. (2017). Effect of steaming and boiling on the antioxidant properties and biogenic amines content in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties of different colours. Journal of Food Quality, 2017, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5329070

Procházková, D., Boušová, I., & Wilhelmová, N. (2011). Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of flavonoids. Fitoterapia, 82(4), 513–523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2011.01.018

Pujimulyani, D., Raharjo, S., Marsono, Y., & Santoso, U. (2010). Aktivitas antioksidan dan kadar senyawa fenolik pada kunir putih (Curcuma mangga Val.) Segar dan Setelah Blanching. agriTECH, 30(2), 68–74. https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9675

Robin, F., & Palzer, S. (2015). Texture of breakfast cereals and extruded products. In Modifying Food Texture (Vol. 1, pp. 203–235). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-333-1.00010-3

Shehry, G. A. Al. (2017). Preparation and quality evaluation of pasta substituted with hull-less barley. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11(January), 98–106.

Tejpal, C. S., Vijayagopal, P., Elavarasan, K., Linga Prabu, D., Lekshmi, R. G. K., Asha, K. K., Anandan, R., Chatterjee N. S., Mathew, S. (2017). Antioxidant, functional properties and amino acid composition of pepsin-derived protein hydrolysates from whole tilapia waste as influenced by pre-processing ice storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(13), 4257–4267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2897-9

Widyasaputra, R. (2018). Optimasi proses produksi beras hitam pratanak dengan metode permukaan respon. In Tesis. Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Wu, X., Zhao, Y., Haytowitz, D. B., Chen, P., & Pehrsson, P. R. (2019). Effects of domestic cooking on flavonoids in broccoli and calculation of retention factors. Heliyon, 5(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01310

Xue, Z., Wang, C., Zhai, L., Yu, W., Chang, H., Kou, X., & Zhou, F. (2016). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the germination process. Food Technology and Economy, Engineering and Physical Properties, 34(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/10.17221/434/2015-CJFS

Zhang, M. W., Zhang, R. F., Zhang, F. X., & Liu, R. H. (2010). Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of black rice bran of different commercially available varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(13), 7580–7587. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1007665

Zhang, X., Wang, X., Wang, M., Cao, J., Xiao, J., & Wang, Q. (2019). Effects of different pretreatments on flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Dryopteris erythrosora leave. PLoS ONE, 14(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200174



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.56064

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1655 | views : 1384

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 Rinda - Kusumawati, Nurheni Sri Palupi, Slamet - Budijanto

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

agriTECH has been Indexed by:


agriTECH (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


website statisticsView My Stats