Karakteristik Fisikokimia dan Antibakteri Hasil Purifikasi Minyak Biji Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.)

https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9553

Sawarni Hasibuan(1*), Sahirman Sahirman(2), Ni Made Ayu Yudawati(3)

(1) Program Studi Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Universitas Djuanda Bogor, Jl. Tol Ciawi No. 1, Bogor 16720
(2) Departemen Agroindustri Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan (PPPPTK) Pertanian Cianjur, Jl. Jangari Km. 14 Sukajadi, Karangtengah Cianjur
(3) Program Studi Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Universitas Djuanda Bogor, Jl. Tol Ciawi No. 1, Bogor 16720
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The high solid fraction in Calophyllum seed oil causes Calophyllum biodiesel-oil produced has a high viscosity, high acid value, high cloud point, and other negative influences that is difficult to meet the biodiesel standard SNI 04-7182-2006. This underlies the need to increase the added value of solid fraction Calophyllum seed oil, such as healthy soap. This research was aimed to purification, fractionation, and characterization of fatty acid component as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant owned. So that Calophyllum seed oil may be considered for healthy soap application. The design used in the purification process is factorial completely randomized design, consisting of three factors, namely acid phosphate concentration, temperature and heating time. Based on the research, it resulted in the best treatment for Calophyllum seed oil’s purification was reached by using 0,2% H3PO4  20% at 80  C for 15 minutes. Major fatty acid component in Calophyllum seed oil purification results are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid that reached 98,19 percent of the total fatty acids. The results showed that the Calophyllum oil contains components steroids, flavonoids, saponins, and triterpenoids and has an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus but instead to Escherichia coli.

ABSTRAK

Tingginya fraksi padat pada minyak biji nyamplung menyebabkan biodiesel nyamplung yang dihasilkan memiliki

viskositas tinggi, bilangan asam tinggi, titik kabut tinggi, dan pengaruh buruk lainnya sehingga sulit memenuhi standar biodiesel SNI 04-7182-2006. Hal ini mendasari perlunya peningkatan nilai tambah fraksi padat minyak biji nyamplung. Tujuan penelitian adalah melakukan purifikasi, fraksinasi, dan karakterisasi minyak biji nyamplung. Karakterisasi dilakukan terhadap komponen asam lemak serta uji pengenalan bioantibakteri dan bioantioksidan minyak biji nyamplung untuk aplikasi sabun kesehatan. Rancangan yang digunakan pada proses purifikasi nyamplung adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial dengan tiga faktor yaitu konsentrasi asam fosfat 20%, suhu, dan lama pemanasan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, perlakuan terbaik purifikasi diperoleh pada penggunaan H3PO4 20% sebanyak 0,2% pada suhu 80 oC selama 15 menit. Komponen asam lemak utama pada minyak nyamplung hasil purifikasi adalah asam palmitat, asam stearat, asam oleat dan asam linoleat dengan total asam lemak mencapai 98,19 persen dari total asam lemak penyusun minyak nyamplung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyak nyamplung mengandung komponen steroid, flavonoid, saponin, dan triterpenoid serta memiliki efek antibakteri terhadap Staphylococcus aureus namun sebaliknya bagi Escheria coli.


Keywords


Calophyllum inophyllum; purification; solid fraction; antibacterial; antioxidant

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9553

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Agritech (print ISSN 0216-0455; online ISSN 2527-3825) is published by Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in colaboration with Indonesian Association of Food Technologies.


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